Cardiac remodeling induced by smoking: concepts, relevance, and potential mechanisms
Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets, v. 11, n. 6, p. 442-447, 2012.
Minicucci, Marcos F.
Azevedo, Paula S.
Polegato, Bertha F.
Paiva, Sergio A. R.
Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.
Cardiac or ventricular remodeling is characterized by molecular, cellular, and interstitial alterations that lead to changes in heart size, mass, geometry and function in response to a given insult. Currently, tobacco smoke exposure is recognized as one of these insults. Indeed, tobacco smoke exposure induces the enlargement of the left-sided cardiac chambers, myocardial hypertrophy, and ventricular dysfunction. Potential mechanisms for these alterations include hemodynamic and neurohormonal changes, oxidative stress, inflammation, nitric oxide bioavailability, matrix metalloproteinases and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. This review will focus on the concepts, relevance, and potential mechanisms of cardiac remodeling induced by tobacco smoke.