Comparative anatomy and development of pectoral and pelvic girdles in hylid anurans
Soliz, Monica Carina; Ponssa, María Laura; Abdala, Virginia Sara Luz; Comparative anatomy and development of pectoral and pelvic girdles in hylid anurans; Wiley-liss, Div John Wiley & Sons Inc; Journal of Morphology; 279; 7; 7-2018; 904-924
Soliz, Monica Carina
Ponssa, María Laura
Abdala, Virginia Sara Luz
The development of the tetrapod pectoral and pelvic girdles is intimately linked to the proximal segments of the fore- and hindlimbs. Most studies on girdles are osteological and provide little information about soft elements such as muscles and tendons. Moreover, there are few comparative developmental studies. Comparative data gleaned from cleared-and-stained whole mounts and serial histological sections of 10 species of hylid frogs are presented here. Adult skeletal morphology, along with bones, muscles, and connective tissue of both girdles and their association with the proximal portions of the anuran fore- and hindlimbs are described. The data suggest that any similarity could be attributable to the constraints of their ball-and-socket joints, including incorporation of the girdle and stylopodium into a single developmental module. An ancestral state reconstruction of key structures and developmental episodes reveals that several development events occur at similar stages in different species, thereby preventing heterochronic changes. The medial contact of the halves of the pectoral girdle coincides with the emergence of the forelimbs from the branchial chamber and with the total differentiation of the linkage between the axial skeleton and the girdles. The data suggest that morphogenic activity in the anterior dorsal body region is greater than in the posterior one, reflecting the evolutionary sequence of the development of the two girdles in ancient tetrapods. The data also document the profound differences in the anatomy and development of the pectoral and pelvic girdles, supporting the proposal that the pectoral and pelvic girdles are not serially homologous, as was long presumed.