Obtención y caracterización estructural de compositos a partir de sub-productos de agave y coco
Ing. Contreras Díaz, Francisco Javier
Microstructured and moldable materials were designed, obtained and characterized as composites from by-products of Cocus nucifera L. and Agave angustifolia Haw. Powders and leached sustances with crosslinking agents of coconut endocarp (EC) were achieved by combined thermal and mechanical processes, reaching grain sizes less than 290 micrometers. Carbonaceous agave fibers (ACF) were obtained from the waste of the process of making pasta and agave flour for food, established by Altamirano (2007), incinerating them in a controlled way from 200 to 350 ° C. Powders and leached sustances of EC and ACF were characterized with different techniques in order to evaluate the chemical composition, morphological and microstructural properties inherent to the resulting products so that selecting combinations capable to produce desirable qualities of rigidity with wide margin of tolerance before breaking, typical of the starting materials. The presence of n-aminopyrroldine and other radicals in leachates acted as a precursor to repolymerization process of the EC, powering its effect with the addition of diluted fatty functional groups in solvents with mid molecular weight. For the molding of composites, a compression process and sintering were reconfigured to achieve a coalescence of medium pressure (≤ 60 KN) and low temperature (<300 ° C). The further characterization of the samples with the used techniques for base products showed that the reshaped of initial structure of the components of CD and ACF was effective, as both, IR and Raman spectra detected characteristic vibrational modes of C-C, C = C and CO bonds in the same positions and similar intensities. The microstructural analysis with X- Ray showed the presence of two well-defined crystalline phases, of whewellite and K2FeO4, as well as signals for C70.