Planes de manejo de residuos de generadores de alto volumen: El caso de la Central de Abasto del Distrito Federal, México
Ing. Morales Pérez, Rosalba Esther
The Main Public Market the Central de Abasto in Mexico City is the largest and most important food distribution center in the world. It markets 30% of the agricultural production and reports an average entry of 30 thousand tons of food per day. In 2009, the authorities of the Central de Abasto recorded a daily average generation of 578.6 tons of municipal solid waste. From this amount, 503.6 tons corresponded mainly to the waste generated in the fruit and vegetables, and flowers markets. The remainder 75 tons are recyclable materials recovered by scavengers through waste picking. According to the environmental legislation on solid waste in the Federal District, the Central de Abasto is a high-volume producer and is required to implement a waste management plan. As of 2010, however, the Central de Abasto did not have any; it handles mixed waste and minimum source separation. With regard to the recovery of organic waste, only 60 to 70 tons from the vegetables market and an unknown amount from the meat and poultry market are treated in a composting facility located in the Bordo Poniente Landfill area. The remainder of municipal solid waste is landfilled. Facing this scenario, the purpose of the research was to design a waste management plan for the Central de Abasto, based on the analysis of the diagnosis of the current management of municipal solid waste, and the principles of prevention, minimization, and recovery of waste. The problem liked to the inadequate handling of waste was derived from the diagnosis, the causes and opportunities for action. Results provided relevant data for identifying the critical aspects. Afterward, five strategic lines for the management plan were set. The objective of the waste management plan was to set the foundations for the source separation of waste and contribute to prevention and minimization of waste generated in the Central de Abasto. The execution of the plan will depend on the Technical Committee for the Allocation of Funds of the Trust.