Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso de Especialização
Avaliação da viabilidade econômica da geração de energia elétrica a partir do biogás proveniente da biodigestão de dejetos suínos
The world stage is faced with a continuous growth of population and consequently the consumption of energy and food, promotes the development of agro-energy, trat raise the potential of local propensities. In its production, the agricultural sector generates non value-added market waste. Biomass resulting from the confinement of pig farming has high organic load, when released in nature without proper health treatment, culminates in strong environmental liabilities. The biodigestion of this biomass generate biogas through the proper handling of waste that can provide self-supply at rural properties. As a rule, this is economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. The conversion of biomass into energy, also adds value to digestato (biofertilizer), and, therefore, generates income to the rural producer, i.e. transforms a passive in an active economic environment, meeting the expectations of sustainable development with a focus on efficiency and on energy security. This study was developed in a farm in the Mato Grosso do Sul State. The activity of this farm is targeting the swine farms and produces an average of 184.645,40 m³/year of waste, which represents a biogas production potential of around 2,921,066.37 m³/year, which converted into electrical energy is equivalent to 4,089,492.92 kWh/year. The study presents an analysis of economic and financial feasibility for energy use of biogas in electricity generation and biofertilizer produced in its dependencies, considering their respective uses and benefits. The generation of electric power is for the inner property activities, which shows a concrete possibility to make the rural property energetically sustainable, in order to reduce their dependence from conventional sources of energy. So, it is possible to conclude that there is a potential for production of biogas for power generation enough to supply 90% of the energy consumed on the farm and reducing 78% the production costs, which represents R$ 873.823,27/yearIn addition, in this scenario it is possible to add value to the second product of the biodigestion process, that is the biofertilizer, which represented an economic income of R$ 1,031,816.22 per year on the purchase of fertilizers and chemical fertilizers, and avoiding negative externalities by improper waste disposal.