O sistema de atividades do estágio de letras-inglês sob a perspectiva do professor em formação
Santos, Andressa Dawwed dos
The supervised practicum courses materialize teacher training experience in the classroom in a curricular and institutionalized way. With a compulsory character, several laws and legal documents establish legal guidelines to be followed by institutions involved in the practicum, such as: Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional 9.394/96 Law, Parecer nº28 CNE/CP 2001, Law nº 11.788, from September 25th, 2008, Resolution 2/2015 and also Normative Instruction 01/2014. Considering this panorama, this research aims to identify how the activity system of the UFSM compulsory English major student teaching course is constituted, from the student teachers perspectives at different stages. As the theoretical framework, we adopted the Historical-Cultural Activity Theory (ENGESTRÖM, 1987; LIBERALI, 2009) and the following critical language approaches: Critical Discourse Analysis (FAIRCLOUGH, 2003) and Systemic Functional Linguistics (HALLIDAY; MATTHIESSEN, 2014). The corpus of this research is constituted of fourteen semi-structured questionnaires, applied with undergraduate students of “Didática do Inglês” course and of four transcriptions of semi-structured interviews developed with four student teachers of supervised student teaching courses I and II and other four of supervised student teaching courses III and IV. The analysis of the questionnaires has shown that trainee teachers attribute two roles to observation trainees and three to teaching trainees. The roles attributed to observation student teachers, identified in the participants’ discourses, were a) Proactive Observer (64%) and b) Passive Observer (36%). Concerning the roles attributed to enacting student teachers, we found a) Reflective-collaborative teacher (64%), b) Technical teacher (22%) and finally, c) Ad Hoc teacher (14%). The analysis of the questionnaires indicated that the majority of the undergraduate students represent student teachers in both courses within collaborative-reflective roles. In the interview analysis, the student teachers from supervised student teaching courses I and II represent the activity system of student teaching courses by expanding instruments, rules and attributions related to that practice. Thus, we can observe in the Municipal sphere that the observation teaching practice courses is represented as operating in a passive way, while the State sphere is materialized in the participant’s discourse as more interactive than the first one. The Federal context provides a more active practice than others, once the trainee teachers assume similar responsibilities and attributions to the acting teacher. On the other hand, the activity system of enacting student teaching demonstrates the opposite process. According to the participants’ discourses, the trainee teachers represent the Municipal sphere as a space that provides a higher level of autonomy to student teachers. Coherently, the student teacher is more accompanied by the acting teacher than in other contexts. In the State sphere, although the student teacher has autonomy to develop her classes, she does not receive a systematic accompaniment by the acting teacher. In the Federal context, the student teachers are not accompanied by the acting teacher and they must work solely with reading and writing skills, focusing on technical texts. Thereby, the activity systems of observation and teaching practicum present differences in their constitutions, changing according to the governmental sphere and the particular school structure of each institution.