Factores que contribuyen a la ganancia de peso en neonatos pretérmino con bajo peso, hospitalizados en una unidad neonatal, en el periodo comprendido entre septiembre de 2009-septiembre de 2015
Introduction: Low birth weight is a global public health problem, preterm newborns underweight at birth, hospitalized in neonatal units, require updated health professionals to know the factors that contribute to efficient weight gain. Objective: To identify maternal, newborn and intervention predictors that contribute to weight gain, and comorbidities that not influence in the weight gain in preterm infants with low birth weight hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort was performed by population of a second level Hospital in Bogotá, with preterm infants, between 30-36.6 weeks of gestational age, weight between 1000-1800 grams. A 3-step analysis was performed. First stage: information integrity was evaluated, exposure and non-exposure frequencies were calculated. Second stage: bivariate analysis, to evaluate the association between the factors studied and the weight gain, we calculated relative risk and 95% confidence intervals. Third stage: logistic regression with significant variables of bivariate analysis and variables with clinical relevance. Resultados: In the bivariate analysis, statistical association with efficient weight gain: cephalic perimeter at birth (p = 0.012), birth size (p = 0.016), parenteral nutrition (p = 0.007), fortifiers (P <0.05), neonatal anemia (p <0.05). In the multivariate analysis, the variables that explain the efficient weight gain are the use of fortifiers and transfusion (p <0.05) Conclusions: Factors that contribute to the weight gain of preterm infants hospitalized in neonatal ICU were determined.