Prevalencia de retinopatía diabética en diabéticos tipo II en un centro de referencia 2012 – 2017
Prada Ramirez, Lilian Jeannette
Introduction: By 2030 a diabetic population of 33 million people in Latin America is estimated. The overall prevalence is 25.2%, in Hispanics it varies from 30 to 50% with complications costs around 493 million dollars. Prevention is associated with the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection programs. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of RD in type 2 DM in a hostipal between the years 2012 - 2017. Design: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and prevalence study. Methodology: The prevalence of DR was calculated by estimating the proportion of type 2 diabetics with DR over the total of type 2 diabetics of a hospital in Bogotá during the period 2012-2017. Sociodemographic variables, time of evolution of the disease, arterial hypertension, type of treatment and complications due to DR were collected. The database was validated estimating the degree of agreement (kappa) between the electronic diagnostic system (H360) and the clinical diagnosis given by the ophthalmological examination. Correlation tests (Spearman), analysis of variables with Mann-Whitney test, Chi square and concordance test were used. Results: The prevalence of DR in Diabetes type 2 treated in the Hospital was 7.3% for the selected sample. 62% were men with a median age of 71 years (IQR = 15) and a median time of evolution of the disease of 17 years (IQR = 12). 93.8% were hypertensive and 42.1% were treated with insulin. The most frequent complication due to RD was vitreous hemorrhage (11.2%), neovascular glaucoma (5%), vascular occlusions (4.2%) and tractional retinal detachment (4.2%). The observed concordance was 94% (95% CI -0.16 -0.62 z = 2.666 p = 0.008). Conclusion: The prevalence of DR in the Hospital during the five-year period 2012-2017 was 7.3%. Type 2 Diabetes with DR was more prevalent in men with hypertension, with a long time of evolution of the disease and those who were under treatment with insulin. It is suggested the implementation of prevention programs to reduce visual complications by DR.