Relación entre estrés laboral y presencia de enfermedad cardiovascular en la población médica y paramédica : revisión de literatura, 2006 a 2016
Herrera Romero, Cindy Catalina
Introduction: The study of the prevalence of work-related stress and its relationship with the presentation of cardiovascular diseases on health workers, constitutes an occupational category of important studying and monitoring due to its high risk. Mainly, because of the nature of its work, the hostile environment in which they develop, the allocation of shift work, long working hours, as well as the physical and psychological stress to which they are subjected. Consequently, caring for the health of this group of workers must be a priority and must include preventive measures for cardiovascular diseases of occupational origin. Objective: Conduct a review of the literature on the relationship between occupational stress and cardiovascular disease in health workers. Methodology: The review was carried out in the databases Pubmed, Dialnet, Scielo and Proquest, in a period of time from 2006 to 2016, including articles in Spanish and English. The search terms were occupational stress, occupational risk factors, work environment, work overload and cardiovascular disease in health workers. Sociodemographic variables, work stress, cardiovascular disease, history of diabetes mellitus, smoking, blood pressure and cholesterol levels were also considered. We included 100 articles, 80 descriptive articles, 5 cases and controls and 15 reviews. Results: The average age studied was between 33-44 years and the investigated variables were found on average in the following ranges: HDL-c <40 mg / dL in 10-14%, Total cholesterol> 200 mg / dL in 40- 43% and triglycerides> 150mgr / dL in 15-18% of the cases. Regarding the body mass index, 30-32% of the subjects were obese and 37-39% were overweight. In addition, 4.5-6.5% of the studied population was found to have hyperglycemia or history of Diabetes Mellitus. The prevalence of smoking was between 20-30% and alcohol consumption about 30-40%. Sedentary lifestyle and work stress were present in 55% of the cases and cardiovascular disease was the cause of 35% of the deaths. Conclusion: Health professionals are exposed to a set of risk factors, which lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases causing high morbidity and mortality, which makes it necessary to establish promotion and prevention strategies that reduce the risk in this work group.