Avaliação da concentração de vitamina A materna e de neonatos prematuros e a termo
LIMA, Mayara Santa Rosa. Avaliação da concentração de vitamina A materna e de neonatos prematuros e a termo. 2015. 76f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Bioquímica) - Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 2015.
Lima, Mayara Santa Rosa
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient for many physiological processes such as growth and development, so that their adequate nutritional state is essential during pregnancy and lactation. Lactating women and children in breastfeeding are considered risk groups for vitamin A deficiency and some factors may increase the risk of vitamin A deficiency, such as prematurity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the vitamin A concentration in preterm and term lactating women and newborns by determination of retinol in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum and breast milk collected until 72 hours postpartum. 182 mothers were recruited and divided into preterm group (GPT; n = 118) and term group (GT, n = 64). In preterm group were also analyzed transition milk (7th-15th day; n = 68) and mature milk (30th-55th day; n = 46) samples. Retinol was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Maternal retinol concentration in serum was 48.6 ± 12.3 µg/dL in GPT and 42.8 ± 16.3 µg/dL in the GT (p <0.01). Cord serum retinol was 20.4 ± 7.4 µg/dL in GPT and 23.2 ± 7.6 µg/dL in GT (p> 0.05). Among newborns, 43% of premature and 36% of term had low levels of serum retinol in umbilical cord (<20 µg/dL). In colostrum, the retinol in preterm and term groups had an average of 100.8 ± 49.0 µg/dL and 127.5 ± 65.1 µg/dL, respectively (p <0.05). The retinol average in preterm milk increased to 112.5 ± 49.7 µg/dL in transition phase and decreased to 57.2 ± 23.4 µg/dL in mature milk, differing significantly in all stages (p <0.05). When comparing with the recommendation of vitamin A intake (400 µg/day) GT colostrum reached the recommendation for infants, but in GPT the recommendation was not achieved at any stage. Mothers of premature infants had higher serum retinol than mothers at term; however, this was not reflected in serum retinol of umbilical cord, since premature had lower concentration of retinol. Such condition can be explained due to lower maternal physiological hemodilution and placental transfer of retinol to the fetus during preterm gestation. Comparison of retinol in colostrum showed lower concentrations in GPT; however the transition phase there was a significant increase of retinol content released by the mammary gland of preterm mothers. This situation highlights a specific physiological adaptation of prematurity, likely to more contribute to formation of hepatic reserves of retinol in premature infants.