Tobacco Smoke Induces Ventricular Remodeling Associated with an Increase in NADPH Oxidase Activity
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. Basel: Karger, v. 27, n. 3-4, p. 305-312, 2011.
Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Background: Recent studies have assessed the direct effects of smoking on cardiac remodeling and function. However, the mechanisms of these alterations remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate de role of cardiac NADPH oxidase and antioxidant enzyme system on ventricular remodeling induced by tobacco smoke. Methods: Male Wistar rats that weighed 200-230 g were divided into a control group (C) and an experimental group that was exposed to tobacco smoke for a period of two months (ETS). After the two-month exposure period, morphological, biochemical and functional analyses were performed. Results: The myocyte cross-sectional area and left ventricle end-diastolic dimension was increased 16.2% and 33.7%, respectively, in the ETS group. The interstitial collagen volume fraction was also higher in ETS group compared to the controls. In addition to these morphological changes, the ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in the ETS group. Importantly, these alterations were related to augmented heart oxidative stress, which was characterized by an increase in NADPH oxidase activity, increased levels of lipid hydroperoxide and depletion of antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). In addition, cardiac levels of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-10 were not different between the groups. Conclusion: Cardiac alterations that are induced by smoking are associated with increased NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting that this pathway plays a role in the ventricular remodeling induced by exposure to tobacco smoke. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel