Feminicidio en adolescentes transgénero en Colombia. incidencia del protocolo médico-forense para la imputación efectiva del delito en la investigación criminal.
Cely Céspedes, L.N & López Jiménez, J.L (2020). Feminicidio en adolescentes transgénero en Colombia. Incidencia del protocolo médico-forense para la imputación efectiva del delito en la investigación criminal.
reponame:Repositorio Institucional Universidad Santo Tomás
instname:Universidad Santo Tomás
Cely céspedes, Laurie Nicolle
López Jiménez, Jair Leonardo
In Colombia, Femicide is a closed criminal type, in whose structure of autonomous crime, the legislator determined, according to article 2 of the Rosa Elvira Cely LREC Law, that the taxable person is the woman considered thus from the biological point of view, in reason for your birth sex In Colombian jurisprudence, committing Femicide is causing the death of a woman, necessarily motivated "by her condition of being a woman or by reasons of her gender identity, motive that is part of the type of qualified fraud" (Sentence C-297 of 2016). According to Ramos de Mello (2015), in Femicide “the State is incapable of guaranteeing the lives of women, of respecting their human rights, of acting legally and enforcing respect, of seeking and administering justice, of preventing and eradicating the violence it causes ”; While, sociological theories consider Femicide as a crime of the State (Legarde, 2008) or as systematic sexual violence, typical of power relations: social, cultural (machismo, patriarchy), political and economic, dominant (Monárrez, 2009 ). In the Rosa Elvira Cely Law, the legislator did not precisely define that the taxpayer in the crime of Femicide enshrined therein, could be extended to transgender people, a general concept that for the IACHR of the OAS constitutes a basic denomination to designate “those persons whose identity of gender or sexual orientation is different from the expectations based on sexual physical characteristics or on the sex assigned to them at the time of birth ”(IACHR-OEA, 2015); social models or stereotypes establish dissimilarities in society, although the anthropological perspective of the role of trans women (transvestites, transsexuals and transgender), is not necessarily linked to medical-surgical procedures for the reassignment of sex, but to the construction of identity gender (Cano-Caballero, 2010). In contemporary society, there are groups of LGBTI people, considered vulnerable due to their sexual diversity, who do not have their legal identity rights regulated in national legislation, despite the fact that the international legal community has recognized them by reason or by their status as gender (IACHR, 2015); a situation that exposes them to prejudice that in turn makes them the object of violence and stigmatization (Ramos-Salcedo & González-Mauricio, 2015). On the other hand, the social order in the States is not structurally organized to prioritize and adapt pertinent processes with gender or sexual identity, for which they should be considered as “construction of the social body as an axis of transversally for culturalization and dissemination of information, so that contemporary society respects and assimilates a more inclusive process that generates greater attention to the different body present in the person” (Cedeño & Cedeño, 2018). In Colombia, the rights of LGBTI people are not only disrespected, but they are also not fully guaranteed, given that judicial and administrative authorities "put the stereotype or prejudice before applying the legislation or by a omisive attitude ignore the precarious and undervalued conditions and social stigmatization ”(Colombia Diversa, 2020); perhaps due to the fact that the system is founded on the basis of gender binaries, making trans women invisible and ignoring the reality of people with non-binary gender. Although the Colombian Constitutional Court has established jurisprudence through multiple judgments on the rights of same-sex couples, homophobic discrimination persists in the country for reasons of sexual orientation and gender identity, with the violation of rights being continuously recorded. human and fundamental such as personal integrity, freedom, privacy, freedom of expression, despite the rules and Non-Governmental Organizations that work for their guarantee. After two decades of the 21st century, these rights of transgender people continue to be ignored and as human persons, “marginalized and discriminated against by a society that denies the existence of a gender identity typical of trans people, the right to equality without distinction. of sex or gender, without exclusion” (Cardona-Cuervo, 2016; Godoy, 2019). Not recognizing the trans person in an inclusive way, through public policy or more precise legislation, neglects social valuation, non-normative gender identity and legal identity, being a condition that leads to the incorrect imputation as aggravated homicide, to a criminal type of Femicide whose taxpayer is the transgender woman-adolescent. In this thesis, an analytical and comparative socio-legal research is developed, given its method of intersectional content analysis, based on sources of doctrine, jurisprudence and criminal policy, as well as comparative law with Latin American countries in whose legislation the criminal type is included from feminicide, delimiting its unit of analysis to a transgender adolescent and the epistemological phrase is developed through multidimensional and interdisciplinary treatment, with three analytical categories approached from social anthropology, psychology, law and forensic science; to determine the social construction and legal identity as a transgender woman-adolescent, necessary to propose her exhaustive inclusion as a taxpayer in the LREC. From the procedural-criminal point of view, the forensic medical action protocol is proposed and the incident socio-legal elements are incorporated that, as a judicial mechanism, are required to address for an effective imputation in the criminal investigation process of transgender Femicide. From the academic point of view, the legal problem and its solution are approached from interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary knowledge in the areas of Anthropology, Human Rights, Forensic Science, Procedural-Criminal Law and Criminology; with which a transversal, contemporary contribution with a socio-legal impact is achieved, which generates a prospective as a new line of research and future research of high impact at the theoretical and institutional level in the USTA.