Improving both EFL listening and speaking skills of children through the use of EFL in physical education (PE) classes at the education media level
López Andrade, Francisco Javier
The Ecuadorian educational system is still with many difficulties, even though there are many efforts to improve it. Several theories can be applied in this respect. Piaget and Vygotsky are two thinkers that have contributed to the educational system over the last century. Both have similarities and different viewpoints in their theories about childhood speech and language cognitive development. Cognitive development is defined as development of the ability to think and reason (University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, 2006). Piaget and Vygotsky were both contributors to the cognitive development theories. Piaget and Vygotsky were both constructivists. “Constructivism is that individuals are actively involved right from birth in constructing personal meaning, that is their own personal understanding, from their experiences. In other words, everyone makes their own sense of the world and the experiences that surround them.” (Williams and Burden: 1997:21) However, this is the only similarity between Piaget´s and Vygotsky´s cognitive/constructivist theories. Piaget believes that intelligence starts from action. He believes that children learn from interaction with their surroundings and the learning process of that action, which takes place after development. On the other hand, Vygotsky feels that learning occurs before development of that action and that children learn because...