Ansiedade social: avaliando protocolo de intervenção em grupo com estudantes universitárias
Souza, Graziela de Oliveira
The conditions currently observed in contemporary life are associated with stressful and aversive aspects that can increase the probability of both conditioned and unconditioned responses of anxiety, as well as maintain a relatively sophisticated repertoire under aversive control, that can lead to both the production and strengthening of repertoire usually identified as social anxiety. Social anxiety, also known as social phobia can produce economic, affective and emotional damages, affecting social interactions, leading to deficits in both quality of life and mental health indicators. The present study aimed to evaluate a group analytical-behavioral intervention protocol, with training component in social skills, for university students (undergraduted and graduated ones) with indicators of social phobia. Two groups were realized with identical characteristics of implementation, but at different moments (Group A and Group B). Each group started its activities with six patients. The participants were 12 students in higher education formation, aged 18 to 30 years, who had symptoms of severe or very severe social anxiety, according to the standardized scores on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. The intervention protocol was composed of 8 sessions, organized in three modules: (1) Psychoeducation on Anxiety; (2) Relaxation Training and (3) Social Skills Training. Evaluations were implemented in individual meetings in three moments: initial, intermediate and final. In these evaluations, standardized instruments were applied, namely: 1) Liebowitz Social Phobia Scale; 2) Transversal Scale of Level 1 Symptoms for Adults; 3) Social Anxiety Severity Scale (APA); 4) Beck Anxiety Inventory; 5) Beck Depression Inventory; 6) Social Skills Inventory; and, (6) World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref). Evaluations were also performed at the beginning and end of three different sessions; and two follow-up evaluations occurred within 15 and 30 days following completion of the intervention. Five participants from each group completed scheduled intervention activities. No participants maintained a severe or very severe anxiety score at the end of the intervention, with a significant decrease observed between the initial and final evaluation [Friedman, χ2 (3) = 28,080, p <0, 000]. There was a significant reduction in anxiety scores [χ2 (3) t = 22.013, p <0.000] and depression [χ2 (2) t = 15.235, p <0.000]; and a representative increase in social skills indicators [Wilcoxon: z = -2.666, p <0.008] and quality of life [Friedman, χ2 (3) t = 9,742, p <0.021]. Analysis using the JT method showed evidence of reliable changes and clinical significance for most participants, in all dimensions assessed. The discussions addressed the implications of the group intervention protocol implemented for the construction of subsidies that makes it possible to identify the role of exposure procedures and social skills training in interventions for individuals with indicators of social phobia.