Artículos de revistas
Phase-Locked loops lock-in range in Frequency Modulated-Atomic Force Microscope nonlinear control system
Communications In Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V., v. 17, n. 7, p. 3101-3111, 2012.
Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Since the mid 1980s the Atomic Force Microscope is one the most powerful tools to perform surface investigation, and since 1995 Non-Contact AFM achieved true atomic resolution. The Frequency-Modulated Atomic Force Microscope (FM-AFM) operates in the dynamic mode, which means that the control system of the FM-AFM must force the micro-cantilever to oscillate with constant amplitude and frequency. However, tip-sample interaction forces cause modulations in the microcantilever motion. A Phase-Locked loop (PLL) is used to demodulate the tip-sample interaction forces from the microcantilever motion. The demodulated signal is used as the feedback signal to the control system, and to generate both topographic and dissipation images. As a consequence, a proper design of the PLL is vital to the FM-AFM performance. In this work, using bifurcation analysis, the lock-in range of the PLL is determined as a function of the frequency shift (Q) of the microcantilever and of the other design parameters, providing a technique to properly design the PLL in the FM-AFM system. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.