Artículos de revistas
Diversification in the use of resources by Idarnes species: bypassing functional constraints in the fig-fig wasp interaction
BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, MALDEN, v. 106, n. 1, supl. 1, Part 3, pp. 114-122, MAY, 2012
Elias, Larissa G.
Teixeira, Simone de Pádua
Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo
Mutualisms such as the figfig wasp mutualism are generally exploited by parasites. We demonstrate that amongst nonpollinating fig wasps (NPFWs) parasitic on Ficus citrifolia, a species of Idarnes galls flowers and another species feeds on galls induced by other wasps killing their larvae. The galling wasp inserts its ovipositor through the fig wall into the fig cavity. The ovipositor then follows a sinuous path and is introduced through the stigma and style of the flower. The egg is deposited between the integument and nucellus, in the exact location where the pollinating mutualistic wasp would have laid its egg. Gall induction is a complex process. In contrast, the path followed by the ovipositor of the other species is straightforward: attacking a larva within a developed gall poses different constraints. Shifts in feeding regime have occurred repeatedly in NPFWs. Monitoring traits associated with such repeated evolutionary shifts may help understand underlying functional constraints. (c) 2012 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2012, 106, 114122.