Artículos de revistas
Contribuition of nitrogen from biological nitrogen fixation, nitrogen fertilizer and soil nitrogen on the growth of the common bean and cowpea
BRAGANTIA, v.70, n.1, p.206-215, 2011
BRITO, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira
SILVA, Edson Cabral da
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) constitutes a valuable source of this nutrient for the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., being its avaibility affected by mineral N in the soil solution. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate, as urea, on symbiotic fixation of N(2) in common bean and cowpea plants, using the isotopic technique, and quantifying the relative contributions of N sources symbiotic N(2) fixation, soil native nitrogen and urea N on the growth of the common bean and cowpea. Non nodulating soybean plants were used as standard. The research was carried out in greenhouse, using pots with 5 kg of soil from a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol). The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 30 treatments and three replications, arranged in 5x3x2 factorial outline. The treatments consisted of five N rates: 2, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg N kg(-1) soil; three sampling times: 23, 40 and 76 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. The BNF decreased with increase N rates, varying from 81.5% to 55.6% for cowpea, and from 71.9% to 55.1% for common bean. The symbiotic N(2) fixation in cowpea can substitute totally the nitrogen fertilization. The nitrogen absorption from soil is not affected by nitrogen fertilizer rate. The N recovery from fertilizer at 76 DAS was of 60.7% by common bean, and 57.1% by cowpea. The symbiotic association in common bean needs the application of a starting dose (40 kg N ha(-1)) for economically acceptable yields.
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