Artículos de revistas
Differential Expression Of Myogenic Regulatory Factor Myod In Pacu Skeletal Muscle (piaractus Mesopotamicus Holmberg 1887: Serrasalminae, Characidae, Teleostei) During Juvenile And Adult Growth Phases
Micron. , v. 39, n. 8, p. 1306 - 1311, 2008.
de Almeida F.L.A.
Dal Pai-Silva M.
Skeletal muscle is the edible part of the fish. It grows by hypertrophy and hyperplasia, events regulated by differential expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The study of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is very important in fish farming development. Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is one of the most important food species farmed in Brazil and has been extensively used in Brazilian aquaculture programs. The aim of this study was to analyze hyperplasia and hypertrophy and the MRF MyoD expression pattern in skeletal muscle of pacu (P. mesopotamicus) during juvenile and adult growth stages. Juvenile (n = 5) and adult (n = 5) fish were anaesthetized, sacrificed, and weight (g) and total length (cm) determined. White dorsal region muscle samples were collected and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Transverse sections (10 μm thick) were stained with Haematoxilin-Eosin (HE) for morphological and morphometric analysis. Smallest fiber diameter from 100 muscle fibers per animal was calculated in each growth phase. These fibers were grouped into three classes (<20, 20-50, and >50 μm) to evaluate hypertrophy and hyperplasia in white skeletal muscle. MyoD gene expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Juvenile and adult pacu skeletal muscle had similar morphology. The large number of <20 μm diameter muscle fibers observed in juvenile fish confirms active hyperplasia. In adult fish, most fibers were over 50 μm diameter and denote more intense muscle fiber hypertrophy. The MyoD mRNA level in juveniles was higher than in adults. A consensus partial sequence for MyoD gene (338 base pairs) was obtained. The Pacu MyoD nucleotide sequence displayed high similarity among several vertebrates, including teleosts. The differential MyoD gene expression observed in pacu white muscle is possibly related to differences in growth patterns during the phases analyzed, with hyperplasia predominant in juveniles and hypertrophy in adult fish. These results should provide a foundation for understanding the molecular control of skeletal muscle growth in economically important Brazilian species, with a view to improving production quality. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.39813061311Aguiar, D.H., Barros, M.M., Padovani, C.R., Pezzato, L.E., Dal Pai-Silva, M., Growth characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue in Oreochromis niloticus larvae fed on a lysine supplemented diet (2005) Journal of Fish Biology, 67 (5), pp. 1287-1298Altringham, J.D., Johnston, I.A., The mechanical properties of pollyneuronally myotomal muscle fibres isolated from a teleost fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius) (1988) Pflügers Arch European Journal of Physiology, 412, pp. 524-529Altschul, S.F., Madden, T.L., Schäffer, A.A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W., Lipman, D.J., Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs (1997) Nucleic Acids Research, 25, pp. 3389-3402Bancroft, J.D., Steven, A., (1990) Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques, , Churchill Livingstone, New YorkBernardino, G., Colares de Melo, J.S., Estimativa do tamanho mínimo da amostra de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Holmberg, 1887) em monocultura, em viveiros experimentais (1989) Boletim Técnico do CEPTA, 2, pp. 75-89Blackwell, T., Weintraub, H., Differences and similarities in DNA-binding preferences of MyoD and E2A protein complexes revealed by binding site selection (1990) Science, 250, pp. 1104-1110Bone, Q., On the function of the two types of myotomal muscle fibre in elasmobranch fish (1966) Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 46, pp. 321-349Chomczynski, P., Sacchi, N., Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction (1987) Analytical Biochemistry, 162 (1), pp. 156-159Dal Pai-Silva, M., Dal Pai, V., Mota, D.L., Rodrigues, A.C., Histochemical study of muscle fibre types in Synbranchus marmoratus (Boch, 1795) (1995) Annals of Anatomy, 177, pp. 65-70Dal Pai-Silva, M., Dal Pai, V., Mota, D.L., Características morfológicas e histoquímicas do tecido muscular do Synbranchus marmoratus (Pisces, Synbranchidae), com fenótipo I e II (1995) Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 55, pp. 685-691Dal Pai, V., Dal Pai-Silva, M., Carvalho, E.D., Fujihara, C.Y., Gregório, E.A., Curi, P.R., Morphological, histochemical and morphometric study of the myotomal muscle tissue of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Holmberg, 1887: Serrasalminae, Characidae, Teleostei) (2000) Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 29 (5), pp. 283-289Dal Pai-Silva, M., Carvalho, R.F., Pellizzon, C.H., Dal Pai, V., Muscle fibre types in tilapia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) from larval to adult: histochemical, ultrastructural and morphometric study (2003) Tissue and Cell, 35, pp. 179-187Dal Pai-Silva, M., Freitas, E.M.S., Dal Pai, V., Rodrigues, A.C., Morphological and histochemical study of myotomal muscle in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) during the initial growth phases (2003) Archive of Fishery and Marine Research, 50, pp. 149-160Dubowitz, V., Brooke, M.H., (1973) Muscle Biopsy: A Modern Approach, , WB Saunders Company, LondonDriedzic, W.R., Hochachka, P.W., Control of energy metabolism in fish white muscle (1976) American Journal of Physiology, 230, pp. 579-582Edmonson, D.G., Olson, E.N., Helix loop helix proteins as regulators of muscle-specific transcription (1993) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 268, pp. 755-758Felsenstein, J., Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap (1985) Evolution, 39, pp. 783-791Fernandez, D.A., Calvo, J., Franklin, C.E., Johnston, I.A., Muscle fibre types and size distribution in sub-antartic notothenoid fishes (2000) Journal of Fish Biology, 56, pp. 1295-1311Galloway, T.F., Kjorsvik, E., Kryvi, H., Muscle growth and development in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.) related to different somatic growth rates (1999) Journal of Experimental Biology, 202, pp. 2111-2120Godoy, M.P., (1975) Peixes do Brasil - Subordem Characoidei, bacia do rio Mogi-Guaçu, , Franciscana, PiracicabaGoodman, L.A., Simultaneous confidence intervals for contrasts among multinomial populations (1964) Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 35 (2), pp. 716-725Goodman, L.A., On simultaneous confidence intervals for multinomial proportions (1965) Technometrics, 7 (2), pp. 247-254Goulding, M., (1981) Man and Fisheries on an Amazonian Frontier, , The Rague, BostonGreer-Walker, M.G., Pull, G.A., A survey of red and white muscle in marine fish (1975) Journal of Fish Biology, 7, pp. 295-300Hall, T.A., BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis (1999) Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, 41, pp. 95-98Hernandez, R.A., (1989) Cultivo de Colossoma, , Guadalupe, BogotáHoyle, J., Gill, H.S., Weatherley, A.H., Histochemical characterization of myotomal muscle in the grass pickerel, Esox americanus vermiculatus (LeSeuer), and the muskellunge, E. masquinongy (Mitchell) (1986) Journal of Fish Biology, 28, pp. 393-401Johansen, K.A., Overturf, K., Quantitative expression analysis of genes affecting muscle growth during development of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (2005) Marine Biotechnology, 7 (6), pp. 576-587Johnston, I.A., Muscle development and growth: potential implication for flesh quality in fish (1999) Aquaculture, 177, pp. 99-115Jonhston, I.A., Davison, W., Goldspink, G., Energy metabolism of carp swimming muscles (1977) Journal of Comparative Physiology, 114, pp. 203-216Johnston, I.A., Manthri, S., Alderson, R., Smart, A., Campbell, P., Nickel, D., Robertson, B., Burt, M.L., Freshwater environment affects growth rate and muscle fibre recruitment in seawater stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) (2003) Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, pp. 2539-2552Kimura, M., A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitution trough comparative studies of nucleotide sequences (1980) Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16, pp. 111-120Koumans, J.T.M., Akster, H.A., Witkam, A., Osse, J.W.M., Numbers of muscle nuclei and myosatellite cell nuclei in red and white axial muscle during growth of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) (1994) Journal of Fish Biology, 44 (3), pp. 391-408Koumans, J.T.M., Akster, H.A., Myogenic cells in development and growth of fish (1995) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 110 (A), pp. 3-20Kumar, S., Tamura, K., Nei, M., MEGA3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment (2004) Briefings in Bioinformatics, 5, pp. 150-163Lassar, A., Buskin, J.N., Lockshon, D., Davis, R.L., Apone, S., Hauschka, S.D., Weintraub, H., MyoD is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein requiring a region of myc homology to bind to the muscle creatine kinase enhancer (1989) Cell, 58, pp. 823-831Luther, P.K., Munro, P.M.G., Squire, J.M., Muscle ultrastructure in the teleost fish (1995) Micron, 26, pp. 431-459Megeney, L.A., Rudnicki, M.A., Determination versus differentiation and the MyoD family of transcription factors (1995) Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 73, pp. 723-732Murre, C., McCaw, P.S., Vaessin, H., Caudy, M., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N., Cabrera, C.V., Lassar, A.B., Interactions between heterologous helix-loop-helix proteins generate complexes that bind specifically to a common DNA sequence (1989) Cell, 58 (3), pp. 537-544Norman, G.R., Streiner, D.L., (1993) Biostatistics-The Bare Essentials, , Mosby Year Book, St. LouisRescan, P.Y., Gauvry, L., Paboeuf, G., Fauconneau, B., Identification of a muscle factor related to MyoD in fish species (1994) Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, 1218, pp. 202-204Rowlerson, A., Veggetti, A., Cellular mechanisms of post-embryonic muscle growth in aquaculture species (2001) Muscle Development and Growth, pp. 103-140. , Johnston I.A. (Ed), Academic Press, LondonRudnicki, M.A., Jaenisch, R., The MyoD family of transcription factors and skeletal muscle myogenesis (1995) Bioassays, 17, pp. 203-209Sänger, A.M., Stoiber, W., Muscle fiber diversity and plasticity (2001) Muscle Development and Growth, pp. 187-250. , Johnston I.A. (Ed), Academic Press, LondonScapolo, P.A., Veggetti, A., Mascarello, F., Romanello, M.G., Developmental transitions of myosin isoforms and organization of the lateral muscle in the teleost Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) (1988) Anatomy and Embryology, 178, pp. 287-295Tan, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, P.J., Xu, P., Xu, Y., Molecular structure and expression patterns of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Myf-5, a myogenic regulatory factor (2006) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 145 (B), pp. 204-213Te Kronnie, G., Tatarczuch, L., Van Raamsdonk, W., Kilarski, W., Muscle fibre types in the myotome of stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L.a histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study (1983) Journal of Fish Biology, 22 (3), pp. 303-316Thompson, J.D., Higgins, D.G., Gibson, T.J., Clustal W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice (1994) Nucleic Acids Research, 22, pp. 4673-4680Tom, M., Chen, N., Sage, M., Herut, B., Rinkevich, B., Quantifying fish metallothionein transcript by real time PCR for its utilization as an environmental biomarkers (2004) Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48, pp. 705-710Urbinati, C.U., Gonçalves, F.D., Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) (2005) Espécies nativas para a psicultura no Brasil, pp. 225-255. , Baldisserotto B., and Gomes L.C. (Eds), Editora UFSM, Santa MariaUsher, M.L., Stickland, N.C., Thorpe, J.E., Muscle development in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) embryos and the effect of temperature on muscle cellularity (1994) Journal of Fish Biology, 44 (6), pp. 953-964Valente, L.M.P., Rocha, E., Gomes, E.F.S., Silva, M.W., Oliveira, M.H., Monteiro, R.A.F., Fauconneau, B., Growth dynamics of white and red muscle fibres in fast- and slow-growing strains of rainbow trout (1999) Journal of Fish Biology, 55 (4), pp. 675-691Veggetti, A., Mascarello, F., Scapolo, P.A., Rowlerson, A., Carnevali, C., Muscle growth and myosin isoform transitions during development of a small teleost fish, Poecilia reticulata (Peters) (Atheriniformes, Poeciliidae): a histochemical, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and morphometric study (1993) Anatomy and Embryology, 187, pp. 353-361Watabe, S., Myogenic regulatory factors and muscle differentiation during ontogeny in fish (1999) Journal of Fish Biology, 55 (sa), pp. 1-18Watabe, S., Myogenic regulatory factors (2001) Muscle Development and Growth, pp. 19-41. , Johnston I.A. (Ed), Academic Press, LondonWeatherley, A.H., Gill, H.S., Growth dynamics of white myotomal muscle fibres in the bluntnose minnow, Pimephales notatus Rafinesque, and comparison with rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson (1984) Journal of Fish Biology, 25 (1), pp. 13-24Weatherley, A., Gill, H., Lobo, A.F., Recruitment and maximal diameter of axial muscle fibers in the teleosts and their relationship to somatic growth and ultimate size (1988) Journal of Fish Biology, 33 (6), pp. 851-859Zhang, G., Swank, D.M., Rome, L.C., Quantitative distribution of muscle fiber types in the scup Stenoteomus chrysops (1996) Journal of Morphology, 229, pp. 71-81Zhang, Y., Tan, X., Zhang, P.J., Xu, Y., Characterization of muscle-regulatory gene, MyoD, from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and analysis of its expression patterns during embryogenesis (2006) Marine Biotechnology, 8 (2), pp. 139-148Zimmerman, A.M., Lowery, M.S., Hyperplastic development and hypertrophic growth of muscle fibers in the white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) (1999) Journal of Experimental Zoology, 284, pp. 299-308