Rhizospheric streptomycetes as potential biocontrol agents of Fusarium and Armillaria pine rot and as PGPR for Pinus taeda
Biocontrol. Dordrecht: Springer, v. 54, n. 6, p. 807-816, 2009.
Figueiredo de Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro
Bran Nogueira Cardoso, Elke Jurandy
Pinus taeda is one of the main timber trees in Brazil, occupying 1.8 million ha with an annual productivity of 25-30 m(3) ha(-1). Another important species is Araucaria angustifolia, belonging to the fragile Rainforest biome, which for decades has been a major source of timber in Brazil. Some diseases that affect the roots and/or the stem of these trees and cause "damping-off" of the seedlings, with economic and environmental losses for the forest sector, are caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium sp. or Armillaria sp. This research project intended to isolate actinobacteria from the Araucaria rhizosphere, which present an antagonistic effect against these fungi. After the selection of the best pathogen inhibitors, morphologic characteristics, enzyme production, and their effect on the growth of Pinus taeda were studied. The actinobacteria were tested for their antagonistic capacity against Fusarium sp. in Petri plates with PDA as substrate. The inhibition zone was measured after 3, 5, 7, and 10 days. Of all the isolates tested, only two of them maintained inhibition zones up to 4 mm for 10 days. The inhibition of Armillaria sp. was tested in liquid medium and also in Petri dishes through the evaluation of the number of the fungal rhizomorphs in dual culture with the actinobacteria. It was found that all five isolates were able to inhibit the rhizomorph production, with the best performance of the isolate A43, which was capable of inhibiting both fungi, Fusarium and Armillaria. In a greenhouse experiment, the effect of five isolates on the growth of Pinus taeda seedlings was tested. Plant height, stem diameter, root and shoot dry matter were determined. The Streptomyces isolate A43 doubled plant growth. These results may lead to the development of new technologies in the identification of still unknown bacterial metabolites and new management techniques to control forest plant diseases.