Análise do desempenho competitivo da agroindústria processadora de soja no Rio Grande do Sul
Rhoden, Angélica Cristina
The objective of this dissertation was to analyze the competitive performance of the soy processing segment in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In this sense, the market structure of the soybeans complex (soybean grain, soybean meal and soybean oil) in Brazil and in the world was analyzed. The determinants of the competitiveness of the Rio Grande do Sul’s industry were stratified and the companies stratified based on their perceptions about the determinants of competitiveness. The theoretical reference used included the contributions on the Systemic Competitiveness Model, which encompasses attributes that are beyond the internal environment of the company, since it relates the elements of macroeconomic policies, governance, industrial organization and the management of the productive chain in the process of formation and maintenance of firms' competitive capacity. The procedures used to meet the research objectives include the primary data collection, carried out through semi-structured questionnaires, with closed and open questions, derived from categories considered relevant by the theory of systemic competitiveness. The techniques used for data processing were Simple Linear Regression, central tendency and dispersion measures, and cluster analysis (AA). We also calculated indicators to summarize the responses of the questionnaires applied to managers of the nine agroindustries surveyed. The sample of companies surveyed represents 50% of the total number of active companies in Rio Grande do Sul and is made up of organizations that operate in international, national and regional markets. The results revealed that the soy processing segment is made up of medium and large companies. The investments of the processors in the last five years were concentrated in innovations, business management and variables linked to the productive process. It was identified that the transport infrastructure and logistics was considered important for the competitive performance of the agroindustry. The competitive strategies used by the companies are mainly based on the search for higher volumes of production and installed capacity, that is, gains in scale. The analysis also allowed us to conclude that the factors underlying the competitive performance of the companies are based on the productive structure and business management, especially the deficiencies due to the lack of public policies, especially in relation to logistical and commercial policy issues. The most competitive companies were those with the highest installed capacity and quantities produced, as they had gains in scale. The companies' perceptions about the importance of the analytical levels of the Systemic Competitiveness Theory on the competitive environment, showed that the adoption of innovations by companies was a strategy used to increase productivity. These measures made it possible for companies to maintain their market shares, with the main product exported, which is soybeans and in smaller amounts, soybean meal and oil. It has been found that companies that are part of the global soybean market are competitive. However, the market expansion for the bran and oil segments is also conditioned on tariff issues (trade barriers). In this sense, the Systemic Competitiveness Model made it possible to analyze the competitiveness of soybean processing companies in Rio Grande do Sul / Brazil and to conclude that the greatest challenge to expand their activities lies in the difficulty of accessing new markets for bran and oil.