Efeito da sazonalidade e do nível tecnológico de unidades produtoras na qualidade e potencialidade nutracêutica do leite bovino
VARGAS, Diego Prado de. EFFECT OF SEASONALITY AND TECHNOLOGICAL LEVEL IN QUALITY AND NUTRACEUTICAL POTENTIAL OF MILK COW. 2015. 129 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciência e Tecnologia dos Alimentos) - Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, 2015.
Vargas, Diego Prado de
The effect of technological levels of production systems and seasons in the microbiological (somatic cell count and total bacterial count) and chemical quality of milk (fat, protein, nutraceutical potentiality in relation to the fatty acids profile and pesticides) was evaluated. Through multivariate statistical techniques, it was reduced dimensionality of 1,541 units producing milk (UPM) for the 15 municipalities in the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 15 homogeneous groups and evaluated three UPL per quadrant of the Cartesian plane, in different seasons, which were characterized in four levels of specialization: highly specialized, specialized, partially specialized, and not specialized. After, milk samples from each farm were collected for analysis of microbiological quality and milk chemistry, including the fatty acid profile and index for evaluating the quality lipid fraction, especially the index proposed by the study, called nutraceutical index (NI); and also, the safety of the milk in respect of 93 pesticide residues and efficacy of degradation or elimination of these pesticides front of industrial heat treatments. The production systems and the seasons jointly interfere in the fatty acids profile, and singly interfere in chemical and microbiological quality of the milk. The lowest somatic cell count and the highest protein content were observed in summer, and the specialization level of production units had inverse relationship with total bacterial count. During winter, not specialized systems produced milk with the best nutraceutical index, with the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acids, rumenic acid (CLA, 18:2n7 - c9, t11) and t10, c12 octadecadienoic acid (CLA, 18:2n6 t10, c12). In addition, with increasing levels of specialization of UPM and especially in the spring, summer and autumn were increased agrochemical residue levels in the milk. However, the industrial heat treatments were effective to degrade or eliminate the pesticides present in refrigerated raw milk, highlighting the importance of these different binomials of time and temperature for the safety of the milk consumed.