Artículos de revistas
Diabetic retinopathy among Brazilian Xavante Indians
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. 2018 Jun 13;10(1):46
Lima, Carlos Gustavo M. G.
Franco, Laercio Joel
Fabbro, Amaury Lelis Dal
Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi
Veira-Filho, João Paulo Botelho
Ventura, Alexandre A. C. M.
Cruz, Antonio Augusto Velasco e
Abstract Background To describe the frequency of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its associated variables in Brazilian Xavante Indians. Methods A population-based survey carried out in two Xavante Reservations between 2008 and 2012, included 948 Indians aged 20 years or more, identified 246 individuals with type 2 diabetes. A non-probabilistic cluster sample of 140 diabetic individuals were submitted to ophthalmologic examination. Due to operational conditions and to optimize the field work, only the larger Xavante villages were included. Ophthalmologic examinations were performed during one trip to each reservation, in their villages and consisted of measurement visual acuity, anterior segment biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, and direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results The frequency of DR was 19.3%, distributed as follows: mild non-proliferative retinopathy in nine (33.3%) subjects, moderate in nine (33.3%), severe in six (22.3%), very severe in two (7.4%), and high-risk proliferative DR in one (3.7%). The occurrence of DR was higher among those with a longer duration of diabetes, higher levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting glucose, papillary excavation ≥ 0.5, and among individuals in older age group. Using the log-binomial regression model, diabetes duration > 24 months and HbA1c ≥ 6.5% were significantly associated with the occurrence of DR. Conclusions The presence of DR (19.3%) in Xavante Indians is an alert for health care providers for this population, since diabetes is a new disease among them. Its association with disease duration, high levels of HbA1c and blood glucose calls attention for the necessity of more actions to improve diabetes control in this recently contacted ethnic group that needs particular attention.