Artículos de revistas
The Ritual Use Of A Hallucinogen In An Urban Context: Altered States Of Consciousness And Short-term Effects Induced By The First Ayahuasca Experience [o Uso Ritual De Um Alucinógeno No Contexto Urbano: Estados Alterados De Consciência E Efeitos Em Curto Prazo Induzidos Pela Primeira Experiência Com A Ayahuasca]
Jornal Brasileiro De Psiquiatria. , v. 52, n. 3, p. 181 - 190, 2003.
Ribeiro Barbosa P.C.
Aims: To investigate altered states of consciousness (ASCs) and short-term psychological outcomes caused by the first ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime, and to investigate the association of these phenomena to previous individual variables (set) and to the variables of the context of the hallucinogen use (setting). Methods: 28 subjects were evaluated 1-4 days before the first ayahuasca experience (T0) and 7-2 weeks after this experience (T1). The motives/expectancies to try ayahuasca, the ASCs, and specific psychosocial, behavioral e biographic aspects were assessed by semi-structured qualitative interviews. Minor psychiatric symptoms were assessed before and after the experience by the scale of clinical impression CIS-R. Results: Although sharing various aspects with hallucinogens, the ASCs induced by the ritual use of ayahuasca seem to produce some unique effects. Visual phenomena, numinosity, peacefulness and religious and biographical insights were the most frequent ASCs experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects of both groups related behavioral changes towards assertivity, serenity and vivacity/joy. Conclusions: It is suggested that the configuration of ASCs results from a combination of set and setting aspects and structural consciousness alterations induced by the psychoactive beverage. Some hypotheses concerning the behavioral and emotional changes post experience are also suggested: processes related to religious conversion; processes related to relieves and satisfactions caused by ruptures of day-to-day monotony, and suggestive processes that involve set and ritual setting aspects.523181190Barron, F., Jarvik, M.E., Bunnel Jr., S., Hallucinogenic drugs (1964) Sci Amer, 210, pp. 29-37Botega, N.J., Pereira, W.A.B., Bio, M.R., Garcia, J.C., Zomignani, M.A., Psychiatric morbidity among medical inpatients: A standardized assessment (GHQ-12 and CIS-R) using lay interviewers in a Brazilian hospital (1995) Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 30, pp. 127-131Brissac, S.C.T., (1999) A Estrela Do Norte Iluminando Até O Sul: Uma Etnografia Da União Do Vegetal Em Um Contexto Urbano, , (dissertação). Rio de Janeiro (RJ): Museu NacionalCasenave, S.O.S., Banisteriopsis caapi: Ação alucinógena e ritual (2000) Rev Psiquiatr Clin, 27, pp. 32-35Cole, J.O., Katz, M.M., The psychotomimetic drugs: An overview (1964) JAMA, 187, pp. 758-761Couto, F.R., (1989) Sinais Dos Tempos: Santos e Xamãs, , (dissertação). Brasília (DF): UnBDobkin De Rios, M., A modern-day shamanistic healer in the Peruvian amazon: Pharmacopoeia and trance (1989) J Psychoactive Drugs, 21, pp. 91-99Fischer, R., A cartography of the ecstatic and meditative states (1971) Science, 174, pp. 897-904Grinspoon, L., Bakalar, J.B., (1979) Psychodelic Drugs Reconsidered, , New York: Basic BooksGrob, C.S., Mackenna, D.J., Callaway, J.C., Brito, G.S., Neves, E.S., Oberlaender, G., Human psychopharmacology of hoasca: A plant hallucinogen used in ritual context in Brazil (1996) J Nerv Ment Dis, 184, pp. 86-94James, W., (1992) As Variedades Da Experiência Religiosa, , São Paulo: CultrixLudwig, A.M., Altered states of consciousness (1966) Arch Gen Psychiatry, 15, pp. 225-234Luz, P., O uso ameríndio do caapi (2002) O Uso Ritual Da Ayahuasca. 1. Ed., pp. 35-65. , Labate BC, Araújo WS, organizadores. Campinas: Mercado de LetrasMacRae, E., (1992) Guiado Pela Lua: Xamanismo e Uso Ritual Da Ayahuasca No Culto Do Santo Daime, , São Paulo: BrasilienseOtt, J., (1994) Ayahuasca Analogues, , Kennewick (WA): Natural Products CoOtto, R., (1991) O Sagrado. Lisboa, 70. , EdiçõesPahnke, W.N., Richards, W.A., Implications of LSD and experimental mysticism (1971) Altered States of Consciousness, pp. 409-439. , Tart CT, editor. New York: Anchor BooksSAS Institute Inc, 1999-2001, Cary, NC, USAShannon, B., Ayahuasca, mind and consciousness (1999) Noetic Journal, 3, pp. 305-315Strassman, R.J., Hallucinogenic drugs in psychiatric research and treatment: Perspectives and prospects (1995) J Nerv Ment Dis, 183, pp. 127-138Szara, S., The hallucinogenic drugs: Curse or blessing? (1967) Am J Psychiatry, 123, pp. 1513-1518Linger, S.M., Mescaline, psilocybin and personality change (1963) Psychiatry, 26, pp. 111-125