Vertical integration in the Argentine institutional context : case study : wind pump drip irrigation for raspberry plantations
T.L. Adm. 856
Jackson, Martín Alejandro
"The energy from the wind has been an imperative source of power for humans for centuries. Either for transportation, irrigation or manufacturing it has always been a sustainable supply of force. Nowadays, farmers all over the world, rely upon diesel oil and electricity for more than 99% of their energy needs. Global concerns are rising discouraging fossil fuels due to climate change phenomenoms and future hydrocarbons near depletion. In Argentina, unpredictable energy policies are more and more common bringing issues to rural areas such as oil, gas and electricity shortages and a steady rise of prices. Raspberry Plantations demand a steady and secure irrigation system. Electric Pumps and Diesel Oil pumps are consider to be the standard solution. Yet, the institutional context presents numerous issues that discourage the regular appliances or even new renewable systems such as solar powered irrigation systems to be installed and used. The American Farm Wind Pump has been a symbol of Argentine rural tradition for livestock watering. Farmers have grown with this knowledge and have learned to work independently in order to provide water to cattle or to a community. The work analyses several reasons why producers should consider utilizing the wind pump as an independent energy source for small plantations in Argentina, due to the lack of economical and political certainty and the sociological knowledge of the traditional American Farm Wind Pump. The work has demonstrated comparative institutional advantages in implementing recessive institutions –the wind pump-, especially in the long term, due to high initial investement costs; and will surely provide new areas of research for sustainable business solutions within emerging market conditions."