MultiTACT: uma abordagem para a construção de atividades de ensino multidisciplinares para estimular o Pensamento Computacional no Ensino Fundamental I
Martinelli, Suéllen Rodolfo
The Computational Thinking (CT) is recognized as a set of reasoning and critical skills, classified as “mental tools” to be used by the individual in solving various problems. Developing the competence of this “computational think” means know how to recognize patterns, apply algorithmic reasoning, know how to abstract and decompose problems, in situations that do not compete only with Computer Science, in an attempt to solve problems inherent to other areas of knowledge. The Computational Thinking is already explored in Basic Education by several countries, especially those related to the European continent. In Brazil, the National Common Curricular Base (BNCC) adopted the term as part of the norms advocated by the document, which influences the composition of curricula in Brazilian schools. However, there is no consensus in the literature about which are the skills that define the CT and how such reasoning should be stimulated, considering the different realities and educational contexts of Brazilian schools. In order to facilitate the fomentation of the CT by the teachers who work in Elementary School (EFI), this research aim to understand what is necessary to understand and how to develop teaching activities that stimulate the Computational Thinking in EFI children, in the context of Brazilian educational institutions in the interior of São Paulo. To achieve this purpose, two case studies were carried out, and in each one of them, continued training was provided for teachers of Basic Education that approached about the CT and its possibilities of development in EFI. The participants of the courses elaborated teaching practices in order to stimulate the skills of the CT and the BNCC, being these activities evaluated through a qualitative perspective, centered in the processes of investigation of the Grounded Theory. The results obtained guided the formulation of the MultiTACT Approach, which aims to assist teachers in the creation and application of teaching activities that allow the promotion of the skills of the CT and the BNCC. The proposed approach brings together a set of recommendations and procedures that can be applied to the development of multidisciplinary teaching activities on Computational Thinking, as well as incorporating different teaching strategies and materials by the teacher.