Atitudes sobre a velhice e convivência intergeracional: professores, familiares e crianças do ensino fundamental
Yamashiro, Juliana Archiza
Studies focusing on the perspective of attitudes related to aging have pointed out how these can influence social structures and the treatment given to the elderly. This study answered the following objective: To identify and evaluate possible relationships between attitudes of teachers and elementary students - cycle 1, and the students' family members about old age. It is a correlational and comparative research, with quantitative approach. Data collection occurred in six public elementary schools (cycle 1) of a city in the state of São Paulo and was attended by 855 participants, who were divided into three groups: 53 teachers; 403 students aged between seven and eleven and; 399 families of the participating students. The teachers responded to the Neri Scale of Attitudes in relation to old age; the Palmore-Neri-Cachioni Questionnaire on Elderly Knowledge and a structured questionnaire addressed to Education professionals; the children responded to the Todaro Scale of Attitudes Regarding Old Age and a structured questionnaire directed at children; the family members answered the Neri Scale of Attitudes in relation to old age and a structured questionnaire addressed to the family members. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and two equal proportions, for comparison analyzes and Pearson's correlation test for the correlation analyzes. The participants' discursive responses were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse technique. The results did not show significant differences between the attitudes of the three groups, and in all groups there was a predominance of positive attitudes regarding old age. However, it has been shown that the attitudes of parents and children are correlated with each other. As for the teachers' group, the knowledge about aging was understood in this study as a low knowledge about the subject, and did not correlate with attitudes regarding old age. In addition, it was found that in all groups, those who mentioned having good or very good relationships with the elderly obtained more positive scores on the attitudes scales and also, it was observed that teachers and family members presented maintenance regarding the quality of the relationship established with children and adolescents up to the present time. Regarding the old age / aging approach in school, it was verified that although recognized as important, at the same time the theme is poorly focused or not focused, according to the teachers themselves and confirmed by the students' opinions. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between the teachers' attitudes regarding old age and the focus of the theme in the school. It discusses the importance of the quality of intergenerational relationships for positive attitudes towards old age and also about the importance of educational actions to combat age prejudice and attitudes towards old age. It is also pointed out the need to implement educational gerontology in Brazilian public schools and other environments and contexts with the possibility of expanding intergenerational contact and improving the attitudes and knowledge of people regarding old age.