ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS COMO ANESTÉSICOS PARA PEIXES: ASPECTOS BIOQUÍMICOS E MOLECULARES
TONI, Cândida. ESSENTIAL OILS AS ANESTHETICS FOR FISH: BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR ASPECTS. 2015. 102 f. Tese (Doutorado em Farmácia) - Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, 2015.
The essential oil (EOs) extracted from plants Hesperozygis ringens and Lippia alba possess anesthetic and sedative properties and is an alternative to traditional anesthetics used in aquaculture for ease of handling and/or reduce stress. In this sense, the study aimed to investigate the effects of these EOs on the physiology of fish, through physiological, biochemical and endocrine indicators. In the article 1 was determined (a) the anesthetic activity of the EOs of H. ringens (EOHR) and L. alba (EOLA) and (b) its effects on silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after induction and recovery from anesthesia. Fish were subjected to one of the following treatments for each EO: basal group, control or anesthetized (150, 300 or 450 uL L-1 EO), evaluating the ventilatory rate (VR) during the induction period and thereafter transferred to anesthetics-free tanks for recovery from anesthesia. At 0, 15, 30, 60 and 240 min of recovery, samples of plasma and gills were collected to measure metabolic indicators and ionregulatory enzymes, respectively. In the article 2, the effects of prolonged exposure to low EOHR concentrations were studied on silver catfish. After 6 h of exposure to 0 (control), 30 or 50 uL L-1 EOHR added to water, it was analyzed: VR, metabolic indicators of stress in plasma, enzyme activity in liver, and expression of pituitary hormones (growth hormone - GH, prolactin - PRL and somatolactina - SL). In the manuscript, (a) evaluated the effectiveness of anesthesia EOLA on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and (b) we investigated the effects of 35 uL L-1 EOLA and 2-phenoxyethanol (2-PHE) on the stress response in gilthead sea bream undergoing persecution. After 4 h of exposure, the plasma was sampled (for the determination of cortisol, metabolites and osmolality), brain and pituitary (to evaluate the expression of endocrine indicators). In the article 1, anesthesia with EOs caused changes in some parameters measured in silver catfish, but did not prevent the restoration of most of the indicators assessed after 240 min of recovery. In the article 2, 50 uL L-1 EOHR led to an increase of glucose, lactate, protein and osmolality, as well as an increase in metabolic enzyme activity and reduced expression of GH and SL. In the manuscript, gilthead sea bream exposed to EOLA, stressed or not, exhibited higher levels of cortisol, glucose, lactate and osmolality. EOLA exposure added to the stress reduced the expression levels of CRH-BP (corticotropin releasing hormone bound to protein). PRL expression was reduced in the stressed control group and after exposure to EOLA and 2-PHE in fish not stressed. Higher expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) "a" and "b" were observed in fish stressed and exposed to EOLA and 2-PHE, respectively. We conclude that: (1) the EOLA is more efficient for silver catfish that EOHR in anesthesia concentrations; (2) for sedating the fish, it is recommended 30 uL EOHR L-1 (or less); (3) the EOLA was effective as an anesthetic for gilthead sea bream at 100-300 uL L-1, but for 4 h exposure, the 2-PHE was more effective in preventing the stress response.