Artículos de revistas
Uterine and luteal hemodynamic evaluation of the non pregnant mare
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, v. 39, n. SUPPL. 1, 2011.
Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Background: Studies with Doppler ultrassonography started at the end of the 90s for the determination of physiological and pathological alterations in the reproductive tract of the mare. Uterine alterations caused by inflammation, response from seminal plasma infusion, hormonal variations during estrous and diestrus, pregnancy and action of various vasoactive factors influence on the vascular perfusion detected by Doppler ultrasound. The development of efficient methods for uterine quality evaluation is of big importance for field equine reproduction veterinarians, once uterine environment is responsible for pregnancy maintenance. Review: Nowadays, the most used methods of uterine evaluation are the mode B ultrassonography, cytology, culture and biopsy. Hemodynamic evaluation of the uterus can be done by spectral data collected from large vessels, as A. uterine and its ramifications, or from subjective or objective evaluations from endometrium, miometrium and mesometrium attachment, which provide data referent to local and specific alterations of the evaluated area. Alterations in uterine vascular perfusion has been detected during estrous cycle, during pregnancy and in cases of infusion of inflammatory substances. These alterations happen because of vasoactive substances that act in the uterus during these events, however, most of these vasoactive substances are probably not even known. Also, important hemodynamic alterations in old mares, as an increase in vascular resistance, have been described. This increase might result from fibrosis of the uterus and in women it is considered to be a cause of infertility. In mares, periglandular fibrosis of the endometrium is considered to be the major diagnosable cause of embryonic and fetal loss in older mares. For the CL, ovarian artery of the mare supplies the ovary as well as the oviduct and therefore can be used for evaluation of these areas. The CL evaluation can also be done by the percentage of luteum area with colored signals as an indicator of the extent of blood flow. The percentage of the CL area with colored signals is determined subjectively by images observations in real time and/or by a freezing Power Doppler cross-section image with the maximum number of color pixels taped and the total number of color pixels is assessed by a computer analysis system. Therefore, a high correlation between plasmatic progesterone and CL vascularization also allows the CL evalution by this technique. In a first report, CL circulation reached its maximum on D5, the progesterone concentration in peripheral blood increased until D7 and in a posterior report, maximum perfusion was achieved two days after the maximum progesterone concentration (D8). Blood flow reduced between D10-D14 some days before the plasma progesterone decrease and, during the luteolytic period (D15-D17), the decline in CL blood-flow area was greater than blood flow decrease. Conclusion: Doppler ultrassonography add knowledge about uterine viability and CL functionality can be easily used by veterinarians in the field. It is a noninvasive method that provides real time results. However, because of the short time studies in this area have been done, many other answers still need to be found until normal and pathological patterns will be established.