Uso de enteógenos en psicoterapia
Vargas Lizarazo, Lina
The use of entheogens has been present in the most of the cultures around the world since ancient times. Its use has been characteristic for spiritual-ritual, recreational, medicinal and psychotherapeutic purposes. In psychotherapy has been successful in the treatment of patients with different disorders such as: post-traumatic stress disorder, addictive disorders, eating disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, depressive disorders, etc. The present work is made by a review of the literature of the use of entheogens in psychotherapy. For which 46 scientific articles, five book chapters, 14 books, nine web pages, six manuals, five conferences, one code of ethics, one documentary, one newspaper article, one testimony and one interview or personal conversation were reviewed dating from the 60’s to the present. First there is a description of the different types of uses that have been given to the entheogens, the origin of it’s name, the techniques or paradigms that have been used, the guidance of it’s use in psychotherapy, etc. Then, there is a theoretical review of the different substances (LSD, MDMA, ketamine, psilocybin, DMT, mescaline, ibogaine and cannabis), presenting it’s origin, mechanism of action, dosage, general and adverse effects, as well as the most important findings and benefits that each substance has brought to psychotherapy in its main fields of action. At the end, some conclusions are presented regarding the current research in the field.