Caracterización nutricional mediante antropometría de los niños sanos menores de 5 años asistentes a una institución de salud en Puerto Inírida 2014
Rojas Valencia, Edna Lorena
Introduction: Being child malnutrition, a key indicator in a population’s health profile and an established priority for the millennium’s development objectives and the ten-year public health plan in Colombia - PDSP in its food and nutritional security, it keeps great nationwide prevalence despite of presenting an underrating on the presented information, therefore it’s a priority its measurement, notice and treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) standardized the measurement parameters and the national government adopted them by 2010’s 2121 resolution. However to decrease the rate of child malnutrition that in the year 2015 should be reduced 50% according to the PDSP, it’s necessary to identify the underrating which it’s within its own diagnostic. Methodology: A descriptive and transversal population based study was made, in which there was an analisis of a 5 years old children’s database who were going to growth and development appointments in a health institution in Puerto Inírida, in order to make a nutritional value based on anthropometric measurements and comparing the ones made by the health specialists with those found using the WHO’s standard patterns. The information was analyzed using the WHO Anthro software which is owned by the World Health Organization. Results: It was found that the 33,6% of studied children under 5 years old have chronic malnutrition, the 7,6% presents acute malnutrition, the 13,2% have global malnutrition and the 13,9% have obesity. When making comparisons by sex, it was found high prevalence of chronic malnutrition in both sexes, being men the one that is highest (40,1% male – 27,6% female). By contrasting the ethnic affiliation, it was found that the highest malnutrition prevalence was within the indigenous population rather than the non-indigenous population (29,1% within indigenous population and a 29% in non-indigenous population). According to the WHO’s standards, there were 243 identified cases of malnutrition, while in the growth and development appointments there were only 99 identified cases by health specialists. Discussion: Malnutrition is a structural problem, thus it’s important to take into account intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the people. Anthropometric measurements are only one way to evaluate, which need to be contextualized within the environment and the socio-economic conditions, pathological and cultural in which the population is located. The studied children’s nutritional conditions that go to the growth and development appointments, its registered wrong, likewise it was found a high chronic malnutrition prevalence which is a crucial feature in living standards. It’s vital the implementation of appropriate public policies that allow to deepen in knowing he causes of this scourge and thereby implement a proper treatment.