Psychometric properties of EURO-D, a geriatric depression scale: A cross-cultural validation study
Background: Many of the assessment tools used to study depression among older people are adaptations of instruments developed in other cultural setting. There is a need to validate those instruments in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Methods: A one-phase cross-sectional survey of people aged [greater than or equal to] 65 years from LMIC. EURO-D was checked for psychometric properties. Calibration with clinical diagnosis was made using ICD-10. Optimal cutpoint was determined. Concurrent validity was assessed measuring correlations with WHODAS 2.0. Results: 17,852 interviews were completed in 13 sites from nine countries. EURO-D constituted a hierarchical scale in most sites. The most commonly endorsed symptom in Latin American sites was depression; in China was sleep disturbance and tearfulness; in India, irritability and fatigue and in Nigeria loss of enjoyment. Two factor structure (affective and motivation) were demonstrated. Measurement invariance was demonstrated among Latin American and Indian sites being less evident in China and Nigeria. At the 4/5 cutpoint, sensitivity for ICD-10 depressive episode was 86% or higher in all sites and specificity exceeded 84% in all Latin America and Chinese sites. Concurrent validity was supported, at least for Latin American and Indian sites. Conclusions: There is evidence for the cross-cultural validity of the EURO-D scale at Latin American and Indian settings and its potential applicability in comparative epidemiological studies.
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