Resistance in mahoganies to Hypsipyla species: a basis for integrated pest management
Considerable research effort into Hypsipyla shoot borers has failed to produce effective methods of control. However, the develoployment of pest-resistant plantain stock as basis for managing these pests has not been considered until recently. This paper reviews evidence for the existence of different forms of resistance in Meliaceae to shoot borers, with particular emphasis on research carried out in Costa Rica on resistance to Hypsipyla grandella Zeller in Cedrela odorata L. and Swietenia macrophylla Jacq. This research has shown that appreciable genetic variation in resistance to attack by shoot borers occurs in these species. The basis for resistance appears mainly to be tolerance, but variations in non-preference and antibiosis may also occur within C. odorata. Strategies for future research are discussed and it is concluded that the best option for successful shoot borer management lies in the deployment of resistance planting stock in silvicultural or agroforestry systems that encourage natural biological control or otherwise minimise the abundance and impact of shoot borers.