Photophysics at Unusually High Dye Concentrations
Rodriguez, Hernan Bernardo; Mirenda, Martin; Lagorio, María Gabriela; San Roman, Enrique Arnoldo; Photophysics at Unusually High Dye Concentrations; American Chemical Society; Accounts of Chemical Research; 52; 1; 1-2019; 110-118
Rodriguez, Hernan Bernardo
Lagorio, María Gabriela
San Roman, Enrique Arnoldo
The study of the interaction of light with systems at high dye concentrations implies a great challenge because several factors, such as emission reabsorption, dye aggregation, and energy trapping, hinder rationalization and interpretation of the involved photophysical processes. Space constraints induce dye interaction even in the absence of ground state stabilization of dimers and oligomers. At distances on the order of 1 nm, statistical energy traps are usually observed. At longer distances, excited state energy transfer takes place. Most of these factors do not result in ground state spectroscopic changes. Rather, fluorescence phenomena such as inner filter effects, concentration-dependent Stokes’ shifts, and changes in quantum yields and decay times are evidenced. Photophysical studies are commonly carried out at high dilution, to minimize dye−dye interactions and emission reabsorption, and in the absence of light scattering. Under these conditions, the physical description of the system becomes rather simple. Fluorescence and triplet quantum yields become molecular properties and can be easily related to ratios of rate constants. However, many systems containing dyes able to fulfill specific functions, whether man-made or biological, are far from being dilute and scattering-free. The photosynthetic apparatus is a paradigmatic example. It is clear that isolation of components allows gathering relevant information about complex systems. However, knowledge of the photophysical behavior in the unaltered environment is essential in most cases. Complexity generally increases when light scattering is present. Despite that, our experience shows that light scattering, when correctly handled, may even simplify the task of unraveling molecular parameters. We show that methods and models aiming at the determination and interpretation of fluorescence and triplet quantum yields as well as energy transfer efficiencies can be developed on the basis of simple light-scattering theories. Photophysical studies were extended to thin films and layer-by-layer assemblies. Procedures are presented for the evaluation of fluorescence reabsorption in concentrated fluid solutions up to the molar level, which are being applied to ionic liquids, in which the emitting species are the bulk ions. Fluorescence reabsorption models proved to be useful in the interpretation of the photophysics of living organisms such as plant leaves and fruits. These new tools allowed the assessment of chlorophyll fluorescence at the chloroplast, leaf and canopy levels, with implications in remote sensing and the development of nondestructive optical methods.