Early Detection of Cystic Fibrosis Acute Pulmonary Exacerbations by Exhaled Breath Condensate Metabolomics
Zang, Xiaoling; Monge, Maria Eugenia; Gaul, David A.; McCarty, Nael A.; Stecenko, Arlene; et al.; Early Detection of Cystic Fibrosis Acute Pulmonary Exacerbations by Exhaled Breath Condensate Metabolomics; American Chemical Society; Journal of Proteome Research; 19; 10-2019; 144-152
Monge, Maria Eugenia
Gaul, David A.
McCarty, Nael A.
Fernández, Facundo M.
The most common cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is progressive lung function decline, which is punctuated by acute pulmonary exacerbations (APEs). A major challenge is to discover biomarkers for detecting an oncoming APE and allow for pre-emptive clinical interventions. Metabolic profiling of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples collected from CF patients before, during, and after APEs and under stable conditions (n = 210) was performed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). Negative ion mode MS data showed that classification between metabolic profiles from "pre-APE" (pending APE before the CF patient had any signs of illness) and stable CF samples was possible with good sensitivities (85.7 and 89.5%), specificities (88.4 and 84.1%), and accuracies (87.7 and 85.7%) for pediatric and adult patients, respectively. Improved classification performance was achieved by combining positive with negative ion mode data. Discriminant metabolites included two potential biomarkers identified in a previous pilot study: Lactic acid and 4-hydroxycyclohexylcarboxylic acid. Some of the discriminant metabolites had microbial origins, indicating a possible role of bacterial metabolism in APE progression. The results show promise for detecting an oncoming APE using EBC metabolites, thus permitting early intervention to abort such an event.