Mercado brasileiro do leite: análise do impacto de políticas de estímulo à produção
MORAES, Bruna Márcia Machado. Brazilian milk market analysis production to stimulus policy impact. 2016. 91 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Administração) - Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, 2016.
Moraes, Bruna Márcia Machado
The dairy business, for many years, was only conducted for subsistence in the Brazilian rural properties, but with the beginning of industrialization in the country, in the 1950s, it has become a source of income. From this period onwards, emerged cooperatives that acted as in natura milk processor and agent in the commercialization. With trade liberalization occurred in 1990 and the arrival of multinational companies in the industry, the dairy industry in Brazil has experienced changes, demanding increased production to keep up with demand from companies for in natura milk for the production of derivatives. With this situation Brazil began to import as much in natura milk as dairy products to meet the internal demand, background that has consolidated Brazil as a net importer. This is associated with it the fact that production has increased over the period of 1998 to 2014 in lower rate than the consumption. Currently, the policies of incentives to milk production in Brazil it occurs through granting of credit for investments in the activity and differentiated interest rates, as well as specialized technical assistance from government agencies, which has proved to be insufficient to support the expansion of production and domestic demand. Moreover, weigh against the high Brazilian tax burden, as well as the foreign competition. Therefore, to lessen dependence on foreign markets, it is necessary to increase domestic production. Given this discussion, the study aimed to assess the impact of incentive policies for the production milk and dairy products in the Brazilian regions from the simulation of two policies: the first consisted of increases of 10 and 20% in subsidies for the production of milk and dairy products (1A and 1B scenarios), and second, a reduction of 10 to 20% in taxes on the use of primary factors in the production milk and dairy products (scenarios 2A and 2B). To get the results was used the o General Equilibrium Analysis Project of the Brazilian Economy (PAEG). The results indicated that the Brazilian regions with higher milk production respectively southeast, south and Midwest would be the most benefited, as well as displace the production factors such as capital and labor, from the North and Northeast regions, whose dairy sector would present losses. These results were shown in greater magnitude when simulated the policy of expansion of subsidies compared to the tax relief policy. From this, the implementation of differentiated regional and sectoral policies is the alternative indicated. Otherwise, the production is concentrated in the most efficient regions, and also the transport and logistics costs, as well as prices widened amplifying the productive differences and the external dependence of the sector.