Retenção e liberação de fósforo em sedimento de fundo de açudes e córregos de pequenas bacias hidrográficas em um assentamento de reforma agrária
SCHAEFER, Gilmar Luiz. Phosphorus retention and release fron strems and pond bed sediment of small wathersheds in a land reform settlement. 2015. 88 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Agronomia) - Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, 2015.
Schaefer, Gilmar Luiz
Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in eutrophication of aquatic systems and the streams and pond bed sediments are an important environmental compartment in this process. The bed sediment can act as a sink or source of P to the overlying water depending on their physicochemical and biological characteristics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the P dynamics in bottom sediment of ponds and streams and to determine their potential to adsorb or release P due to human activities in two agricultural watersheds. The watersheds, with an area of 1,426 km2 (PBH140) and 0.783 km2 (PBH80), are located in a landscape in the city of Júlio de Castilhos, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. The water and bed sediment samples were collected from ponds and streams in the two watersheds. The characteristics evaluated includes, particle size distribution, total organic carbon and organic and inorganic P fractions P. Through P adsorption-desorption parameters i. e., potentially bioavailable particulate P (Pppb), particulate bioavailable P (Ppb), P desorption rate (λ), equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) and maximum P sorption (CMAP) was determined by the P adsorption-desorption curves. The results indicated that in the particle size, the sand fraction dominated in the stream samples while the pond showed a more fine sediment (silt and clay). Phosphorus fractions ranged depending on the use and management of soil in the vicinity, the presence of point or diffuse pollution sources, contributing to high inorganic P forms in the bed sediments. Furthermore, the fractions of lower P lability were more expressive indicating that low P release to the water column. With an increase in human pressure in the upstream area, there was an increase in bioavailable P forms to aquatic biota, as observed by high concentration of resin extracted bioavailable P. The high Pmax observed in the both type of bed sediments indicates low P saturation of these sediments due to low levels of P in the landscape soils and or low application of fertilizer or manure P. The low phosphorus desorption in distilled water (Q0) and reduced EPC0 give indicate that the these sediments are sink of soluble P and have an important role to maintain water quality in the two monitored watersheds.