PROPAGAÇÃO IN VITRO E EX VITRO de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire Aquifoliaceae).
HORBACH, Micheli Angelica. IN VITRO AND EX VITRO PROPAGATION OF MATE (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire Aquifoliaceae).. 2008. 63 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Recursos Florestais e Engenharia Florestal) - Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, 2008.
Horbach, Micheli Angelica
Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is an important species in Southern Brazil for its economical and cultural values. The present work had the objectives of analyzing the propagation of mate by cuttings, disinfection and in vitro establishment of nodal segments from adult plants and micropropagation of plants originated from immature embryos. Mate cutting were submitted to three (0, 4000 and 8000 mg L-1) IBA doses and two lengths (3 and 10 cm) of cutting. The cuttings were evaluated at 135 days for survival, rooting and formation of roots, leaves and shoots. In the disinfection experiments, nodal segments of one-year-old shoots were immersed in alcohol solution of 70% for two and four min., in 2% of NaOCl for 15, 25 and 35 min. and inoculated in ¼ of MS medium. The percentage of contaminated, oxidized and healthy explants were evaluated at 15 days. In micropropagation, mate seedlings from immature embryos were submitted to different culture mediums (MS, ¼ MS and WPM) for 30 days and evaluated for number of leaves and length of seedlings. For the multiplication, different doses (0; 0,01; 0,1; 1,0 and 2,0 mg L-1) of BAP were tested in ¼ MS culture medium. At 50 days, they were evaluated for the number of shoots, leaves and internodes, shoots length and height. Different doses (0; 0,5; 1,0 and 1,5 mg L-1) of IBA were evaluated for rooting and kept explants either for 15 or 30 days in the medium. In vitro plants of mate were acclimatized in different (vermiculite, sand or coconut shells) substrates, with controlled temperature and light environmental conditions. The highest percentage of rooted cuttings, in both evaluated length, were with 4000 mg L-1 of IBA. Cuttings with 3 cm length produced the highest percentage of rooted cuttings. Nodal segments of one-year-old shoots have the highest survival, with the disinfection with alcohol 70% for four minutes and NaOCl 2% for 25 min. The ¼ of MS salts medium can be used as basal medium for in vitro culture of mate plants. The basal medium with 2 mg L-1 of BAP increases the number of adventitious shoots and promotes shoot proliferation after some sub cultivations, enabling in vitro plant maintenance as microstump, as shoot supply. In vitro rooting can be achieved in one cycle of 30 days of cultivation, with the addition of 3 mg L-1 of IBA to the medium with ¼ of MS salts. In vitro plants of mate can be acclimatized in coconut shells or sand in controlled temperature and light conditions.