Alimentos convencionais e não-convencionais na engorda e qualidade de pescado do jundiá(Rhamdia quelen)
VEIVERBERG, Cátia Aline. Conventional and alternative feedstuffs on growth and flesh quality of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). 2011. 91 f. Tese (Doutorado em Zootecnia) - Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, 2011.
Veiverberg, Cátia Aline
Die to rapid growth of aquaculture and the consequent increase for aquaculture feed, the industry's main challenge is to identify potential dietary ingredients that ensure satisfactory performance, economic viability and quality of fish. Considering this demand, the aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of different protein sources on feeding of jundiá juvenile, and their effects on growth, metabolism and quality of fish. Three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, diets containing alternative protein sources in combination with soybean meal were evaluated: PMM: porcine meat meal; CM: canola meal; SFM: sunflower meal; PBM: poultry by-product meal. After 12 experimental weeks, jundiá fed diets PMM and PBM showed greater weight gain and better feed conversion than those fed diets with plant-protein diets. The enzyme activity, intestinal quotient and somatic indices changed according to the dietary protein source. Fish fed diets PMM and PBM had higher concentrations of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol, and higher fat content in fillet and whole fish, reflecting the higher fat diets. Fish fed diets CM and SFM had lower protein deposition. In the second experiment, the aim was to evaluate the effect of supplementation strategies for limiting amino acids in the diet of jundiá on growth, metabolic response and possible impact on fillet quality. The experimental diets were: CON: porcine meat meal + soybean meal, supplemented with lysine and methionine; MIX: mixture of plant and animal-protein sources, without supplementation of synthetic amino acids; VEG: mixture of plant-protein meals and supplementation with lysine and methionine. At the end of eight weeks trial, there were no significant differences on the performance and fillet composition. However, there were changes in metabolic response of jundiá die to diet composition, which was reflected in body fat content. The VEG diet altered the color and brightness of fillets, although these differences were not detected in the sensory analysis. The third experiment was conducted to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, gross energy and fat of the following ingredients: canola meal, porcine meat meal, sunflower meal, soybean meal and poultry by-product meal. Feces were collected in modified Guelph system, using chromium oxide (0.2% in diet) as marker. From the ADC of diets were estimated ADC of ingredients. Porcine meat meal showed the worst digestibility coefficients for all nutritional fractions (about 30%), whereas plant-protein sources showed good digestibility coefficients (between 70 and 80%). Based on the results obtained in this work, we can conclude that: canola meal or sunflower meal in combination with soybean meal in large quantities are not an alternative dietary protein to jundiá; The combination of three plant protein meals, included in small amounts in the diet can provide similar weight gain to that obtained with the CON diet; There is no need for supplementation of free amino acids in diets composed by the combination of vegetable and animal meals in small proportions.