Dinâmica do nitrogênio-15N de palha de arroz, soja e sorgo em dois solos de várzea
ROSA NETO, Lethícia. Dynamics of nitrogen-15N rice, soybean and sorghum straws in two lowland soils. 2016. 55 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Agronomia) - Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, 2016.
Rosa Neto, Lethícia
The use of alternative crops to rice (Oryza sativa L.), such as soybean (Glycine Maxl.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in lowland areas changes the chemical characteristics of the straw returned to soil. Straw quality and management type are among the main factors that control decomposition rates and straw-N transformations in soil. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare N dynamics from rice straw decomposition incorporated in soil or on soil surface for two lowland soils; and 2) to assess the effects of straw quality (comparison of rice, soybean and sorghum straw decomposition) and of soil texture on N dynamics during straw decomposition on soil surface. A 180-days greenhouse incubation was carried out at the Federal University of Santa Maria, using rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) 15N-enriched straws on two lowland soils, one PLANOSOIL (PlaAr) and one Albaqualf Eutrophic gleysoil (PlaGl). Rice straw decomposition was followed both on soil surface and incorporated in soil, while sorghum and soybean straw decomposition was only studied on soil surface. Remaining 15N-straw, 15N-total, soil mineral 15N and soil mineral N were measured after 30, 90 and 180 days of incubation. Rice straw incorporation compared to its maintenance on soil surface increased the release of N from the straw and the amount of soil organic N , yet did not affect the amount of N recovered (straw + soil). For both management modes, soil type did not influence the release of N and C in the rice straw recovered. Regardless of the management mode, soil type only affected the amount of organic N in the soil, with higher value in PlaGl soil than PlaAr soil. Grasses straw (rice and sorghum), with lower N content (higher C: N), led to lower amount of N released, but provided similar amount of organic N in both soils compared to legume straw (soybean). After 180 days, the amount of N recovered (straw + soil) was affected by the interactions between straw and soil types, with higher value in PlaGl soil with grasses straw than with legume straw. For PlaAr soil, the amount of N recovered did not differ between the three straws.