Artículos de revistas
Phosphorus Over-Fertilization and Nutrient Misbalance of Irrigated Tomato Crops in Brazil
Frontiers In Plant Science. Lausanne: Frontiers Media Sa, v. 8, 11 p., 2017.
Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Univ Fed Ceara
Over the past 20 years, the use of center-pivot irrigation has increased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yields in Brazil from 42 Mg ha(-1) to more than 80 Mg ha(-1). In the absence of field trials to support fertilizer recommendations, substantial amounts of phosphorus (P) have been applied to crops. Additional P dosing has been based on an equilibrated nutrient P budget adjusted for low-P fertilizer-use efficiency in high-P fixing tropical soils. To document nutrient requirements and prevent over-fertilization, tissue samples and crop yield data can be acquired through crop surveys and fertilizer trials. Nevertheless, most tissue diagnostic methods pose numerical difficulties that can be avoided by using the nutrient balance concept. The objectives of this study were to model the response of irrigated tomato crops to P fertilization in low- and high-P soils and to provide tissue diagnostic models for high crop yield. Three P trials, arranged in a randomized block design with six P treatments (0-437 kg P ha(-1)) and three or four replications, were established on a low-P soil in 2013 and high-P soils in 2013 and 2014, totaling 66 plots in all. Together with crop yield data, 65 tissue samples were collected from tomato farms. We found no significant yield response to P fertilization, despite large differences in soil-test P (coefficient of variation, 24%). High- and low-yield classes (cutoff: 91 Mg fruits ha(-1)) were classified by balance models with 78-81% accuracy using logit and Cate-Nelson partitioning models. The critical Mahalanobis distance for the partition was 5.31. Tomato yields were apparently not limited by P but were limited by calcium. There was no evidence that P fertilization should differ between center-pivot-irrigated and rain-fed crops. Use of the P budget method to arrive at the P requirement for tomato crops proved to be fallacious, as several nutrients should be rebalanced in Brazilian tomato cropping systems.