Artículos de revistas
Paracas dust storms: Sources, trajectories and associated meteorological conditions
Dust storms that develop along the Pisco-Ica desert in Southern Peru, locally known as "Paracas" winds have ecological, health and economic repercussions. Here we identify dust sources through MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery and analyze HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particles Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model trajectories and dispersion patterns, along with concomitant synoptic-scale meteorological conditions from National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis (NCEP/NCAR). Additionally, surface pressure data from the hourly METeorological Aerodrome Report (METAR) at Arica (18.5 degrees S, 70.3 degrees W) and Pisco (13.7 degrees S, 76.2 degrees W) were used to calculate Alongshore (sea-level) Pressure Gradient (APG) anomalies during Paracas dust storms, their duration and associated wind-speeds and wind directions. This study provides a review on the occurrence and strength of the Paracas dust storms as reported in the Pisco airfield for five-year period and their correspondence with MODIS true-color imagery in terms of dust-emission source areas. Our results show that most of the particle fluxes moving into the Ica-Pisco desert area during Paracas wind events originate over the coastal zone, where strong winds forced by steep APGs develop as the axis of a deep mid-troposphere trough sets in along north-central Chile. Direct relationships between Paracas wind intensity, number of active dust-emission sources and APGs are also documented, although the scarcity of simultaneous METAR/MODIS data for clearly observed MODIS dust plumes prevents any significant statistical inference. Synoptic-scale meteorological composites from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data show that Paracas wind events (steep APGs) are mostly associated with the strengthening of anticyclonic conditions in northern Chile, that can be attributed to cold air advection associated with the incoming trough. Compared to the MODIS images, HYSPLIT outputs were able to spatially reproduce trajectories and dust dispersion plumes during the Paracas wind storms. HYSPLIT trajectories revealed that part of the wind-eroded lithological material can be transported downwind several kilometers along the Peruvian coast and also deposited over the nearby coastal ocean, giving support to the presence of an aeolian signal in continental shelf sediments, of great importance for paleoenvironmental studies. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.