Actividad física y estructura social. revisión de la literatura científica a partir de los determinantes sociales de la salud
Seguro Jaramillo, Bibiana Marìa
At present, the conceptual frameworks of physical activity go beyond movement and energy expenditure. It also contains political, economic, social and cultural dimensions. In spite of this recognition the majority of investigations glimpse some edges in its definition. For this reason, a narrative review was carried out from the approaches of the social determinants of health based on the model of Marmot, Wilkilson et al., because the field of study of physical activity requires an analysis supported by health factors that understand the social and context components that complement from the critical reading of content the interpretation of academic production. Thus, as the contributions were established from the different postulates of the categories physical activity and social structure, according to different concepts contained in each one of them. Relevant information on the subject was collected and the contributions of academic production were analyzed critically. According to the findings, it is emphasized, the importance of social organizations in the execution of physical activity programs and social support as a fundamental tool in interventions; as well as the role of physical activity in marginalized populations with health problems, whether due to disability, illness or socio-economic conditions. It is concluded that the social determinants of health which are considered most important in the strategies of intervention and practice of physical activity, are the social gradient and the formation of support groups. In terms of physical activity, the main discussions are related to the concepts that include physical activity as the interaction with the environment and the social need for health promotion, reflected, on the one hand, with the practice of physical activity as product of social conditions; on the other hand, the need for intervention programs at the educational, labor, hospital and community levels is made visible. As for the social structure category, the main discussions correspond to the postulates related to the system of significations of Pierre Bourdieu, status and social reproduction. This shows that physical activity is multifaceted and necessary for the improvement of health conditions, the environment and the social context, for the construction of strategies and interventions that favor a positive influence of the factors that influence the processes of social equity.
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Franco, Rolando; Székely Pardo, Miguel; Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas
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