Artículos de revistas
Thiol oxidation by nitrosative stress: Cellular localization in human spermatozoa
Cabrillana, María Eugenia; Uribe, Pamela; Villegas, Juana V.; Álvarez, Juan; Sánchez, Raúl; et al.; Thiol oxidation by nitrosative stress: Cellular localization in human spermatozoa; Informa Healthcare; Systems Biology In Reproductive Medicine; 62; 5; 9-2016; 325-334
Cabrillana, María Eugenia
Villegas, Juana V.
Fornes, Miguel Walter
Peroxynitrite is a highly reactive nitrogen species and when it is generated at high levels it causes nitrosative stress, an important cause of impaired sperm function. High levels of peroxynitrite have been shown to correlate with decreased semen quality in infertile men. Thiol groups in sperm are mainly found in enzymes, antioxidant molecules, and structural proteins in the axoneme. Peroxynitrite primarily reacts with thiol groups of cysteine-containing proteins. Although it is well known that peroxynitrite oxidizes sulfhydryl groups in sperm, the subcellular localization of this oxidation remains unknown. The main objective of this study was to establish the subcellular localization of peroxynitrite-induced nitrosative stress in thiol groups and its relation to sperm motility in human spermatozoa. For this purpose, spermatozoa from healthy donors were exposed in vitro to 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a compound which generates peroxynitrite. In order to detect peroxynitrite and reduced thiol groups, the fluorescent probes, dihydrorhodamine 123 and monobromobimane (mBBr), were used respectively. Sperm viability was analyzed by propidium iodide staining. Peroxynitrite generation and thiol redox state were monitored by confocal microscopy whereas sperm viability was evaluated by flow cytometry. Sperm motility was analyzed by CASA using the ISAS® system. The results showed that exposure of human spermatozoa to peroxynitrite results in increased thiol oxidation which is mainly localized in the sperm head and principal piece regions. Thiol oxidation was associated with motility loss. The high susceptibility of thiol groups to peroxynitrite-induced oxidation could explain, at least in part, the negative effect of reactive nitrogen species on sperm motility. Abbreviations: DHR: dihydrorhodamine 123; mBBr: monobromobimane ONOO−: peroxynitrite RNS: reactive nitrogen species RFI: relative fluorescence intensity SIN-1: 3-morpholinosydnonimine CASA: Computer-Aided Sperm Analysis PARP: poli ADP ribose polimerasa VCL: curvilinear velocity VSL: straight-line velocity VAP: average path velocity PRDXs: peroxiredoxins ODF: outer dense fiber ODF1: outer dense fiber 1 PI: propidium iodide DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide SD: standard deviation ANOVA: analysis of variance