Variação espacial e sazonal de elementos maiores e traços no estuários do Rio Curimataú (RN), através de dados geoquímicos e de sensoriamento remoto
GARLIPP, Adriana Baggio. Variação espacial e sazonal de elementos maiores e traços no estuários do Rio Curimataú (RN), através de dados geoquímicos e de sensoriamento remoto. 2006. 205 f. Tese (Doutorado em Geodinâmica; Geofísica) - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 2006.
Garlipp, Adriana Baggio
The Curimataú estuary is located in the oriental coast of Rio Grande do Norte State in Brazil. Its importance resides in the fact that this region possesses one of the last portions of preserved mangrove in the Rio Grande do Norte State. Nevertheless, it has been severely affected by many anthropogenic activities, as sugarcane monoculture and shrimp farming. Former works demonstrated that an accumulation of heavy metals is occurring in oysters in this estuary, and perhaps it could be explained by the input of metals in this ecosystem deriving from the shrimp farming. To better understanding the origin of these metals, bottom sediment samples, cores and suspended particulate matter were collected for a characterization of metal concentrations (Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and to determine the potentially bioavailable metals. Additionally, the enrichment ratio for each element analyzed was calculated. The mineralogical composition of sediment samples and cores were obtained by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, data of orbital remote sensing were used in order to detect and quantify suspended matter by applying a logarithmic algorithm. Geochemical data of bottom sediments and cores revealed that, excepting Ba and Pb, the elements analyzed presented concentrations characteristic of an unpolluted ecosystem (Al: 0,25 - 8,76 %; Ba: 3,03 - 870 µg.g-1; Cd: < 0,25 µg.g-1; Cr: 1,72 - 82,4 µg.g-1; Cu: 0,12 -25,3 µg.g-1; Pb: 0,38 - 23,7 µg.g-1; Fe: 0,10 - 5,82 %; Mn: 15,1 - 815 µg.g-1; Ni: 0,14 - 36,1 µg.g-1; Zn: 1,37 - 113 µg.g-1). During the dry season a distribution pattern was observed, with higher metal concentrations in the margins, decreasing toward the central portion of the channel. These metal concentrations were well correlated with mineralogical compositions, with clay minerals prevailing at the margins, and quartz and feldspar in the center. However, this pattern was not observed during the wet season, probably because of the high water flux that disturbed bottom sediments. But, as observed for the dry season, a good correlation between metal concentrations and mineralogical composition was also observed for the wet season, with high metal concentrations where there were high quantities of clay minerals. Low enrichment ratios were obtained for the majority of elements analyzed, excepting for Mn, Ba and Pb. Manganese presented the higher ratios downstream for both seasons, and it can be an evidence of anthropogenic impact by shrimp farming. As barium and lead concentrations in sediment samples presented analytical problems during the total sample digestion, one cannot be sure that the ratios obtained correspond to the reality. The highest metal concentrations in particulate matter were obtained in the portion dominated by fluvial transport for all metals analyzed, excepting for copper. Barium and zinc were the only elements that presented elevated concentrations that are not common of unpolluted ecosystems (Ba: 5730 - 8355 µg.g-1; Zn: 3899 - 4348 µg.g-1). However, these high concentrations could not be related to the shrimp farming and waste waters from the town of Canguaretama, once they were obtained from the fluvial particulate matter, that is upstream from the activities above mentioned. The application of the logarithmic algorithm to the processed LANDSAT image was well succeeded, although the acquired image does not correspond exactly to the field campaigns. The IKONOS image provided very detailed views of the suspended sediment concentration at the estuary, as the mixture of distinct water flows at the confluence of Cunhaú and Curimataú rivers, with more turbid waters from Cunhaú river, that is directly affected by effluents from shrimp farming and urban waste waters deriving from the town of Canguaretama