Efeitos do substrato e da densidade populacional sobre as atividades comportamentais e níveis de homócitos em relação à densidade em Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931)
FERREIRA, Eric Silva. Efeitos do substrato e da densidade populacional sobre as atividades comportamentais e níveis de homócitos em relação à densidade em Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931). 2006. 69 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Estudos de Comportamento; Psicologia Fisiológica) - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 2006.
Ferreira, Eric Silva
Carciniculture in Brazil occupies world-wide prominence due to shrimp culture, and the state of Rio Grande do Norte has presented the best results in the culture of the Litopenaeus vannamei in the last decade. This species has been shown to adapt easily to different environments and is between the five most cultivated penaeids of the world. The ponds are usually constructed in areas close to water courses and estuaries. Stock density and substrate ponds can pollute environment, causing losses in the growth and survival of the shrimps, being considered stress factors. Shrimps in inadequate densities and substrates can result reduced productivity of the farm; and favor diseases. So, it is important to verify how these variables influence the development of the animals in the culture farms. Our objective was to study the influence of the type of substrate and the stock density on the behavior and haemocyte count of the L. vannamei. Individually marked juvenile shrimps were kept in aquaria with 30 L of seawater and continuous aeration, in 12L-12D photoperiod. They were observed through Ad libitum and focal sampling instantaneous methods during thirty days, five times per week, six times per day (8:00 to 18:00) in windows of 15 minutes every two hours. The marking of carapace permitted quantifying molting and the feeding was supplied three times a day. Two experiments were carried out: the first one tested animals in the three different substrates (fine sand, smaller rocks-SPP and biggest rocks-SGR) with 33 shrimp/m2. In the second one, the animals were tested in three stock densities (26, 52 and 66 shrimp/m2) in fine sand substrate. At the end of experiment, biometry (first and second ones) and haemocyte count (second one) were made. The behavior of the L. vannamei seems to have been influenced by substrate and stocking density. In low granulometry of the substrate; the exploratory behavior became more frequent and inactivity of the shrimps was reduced. Burrowing was registered in sand substrate, specially in the initial period of the day. Cleaning was gradually higher along the day, presenting the biggest levels as the dark phase approached. The ingestion of feeding was more frequent in low density, and the animals were bigger and heavier at the end of the experiment. In the fine sand condition, the animals presented better growth, probably associated with the burrowing. The molting was equivalent in all types of substrate, but it was more frequent in high densities. Mortality of the shrimps was more frequent in high densities, and cannibalism and diseases were also registered in that condition. The clinical signals were similar to the ones of infectious mionecrosis (IMNV), generally associated with environment and physical stress. The haemocyte count was low for the hematologic standards of the penaeid, which we attributed for greater dilution of haemolymph in the postmolting phase. Smaller shrimps presented lower levels of haemocytes in relation to the bigger animals, count was also low in 26 shrimp/m2 density. The study demonstrates that stocking density and the granulometry of the substrate can affect the welfare, the health and the behavior of the L. vannamei. The sand substrate and low stocking density can be important tools in the management systems of shrimp production