Fractais e Percolação na Recuperação de Petróleo
SOARES, Roosewelt Fonseca. Fractais e Percolação na Recuperação de Petróleo. 2007. 169 f. Tese (Doutorado em Física da Matéria Condensada; Astrofísica e Cosmologia; Física da Ionosfera) - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 2007.
Soares, Roosewelt Fonseca
The complex behavior of a wide variety of phenomena that are of interest to physicists, chemists, and engineers has been quantitatively characterized by using the ideas of fractal and multifractal distributions, which correspond in a unique way to the geometrical shape and dynamical properties of the systems under study. In this thesis we present the Space of Fractals and the methods of Hausdorff-Besicovitch, box-counting and Scaling to calculate the fractal dimension of a set. In this Thesis we investigate also percolation phenomena in multifractal objects that are built in a simple way. The central object of our analysis is a multifractal object that we call Qmf . In these objects the multifractality comes directly from the geometric tiling. We identify some diﬀerences between percolation in the proposed multifractals and in a regular lattice. There are basically two sources of these diﬀerences. The ﬁrst is related to the coordination number, c, which changes along the multifractal. The second comes from the way the weight of each cell in the multifractal aﬀects the percolation cluster. We use many samples of ﬁnite size lattices and draw the histogram of percolating lattices against site occupation probability p. Depending on a parameter, ρ, characterizing the multifractal and the lattice size, L, the histogram can have two peaks. We observe that the probability of occupation at the percolation threshold, pc, for the multifractal is lower than that for the square lattice. We compute the fractal dimension of the percolating cluster and the critical exponent β. Despite the topological diﬀerences, we ﬁnd that the percolation in a multifractal support is in the same universality class as standard percolation. The area and the number of neighbors of the blocks of Qmf show a non-trivial behavior. A general view of the object Qmf shows an anisotropy. The value of pc is a function of ρ which is related to its anisotropy. We investigate the relation between pc and the average number of neighbors of the blocks as well as the anisotropy of Qmf. In this Thesis we study likewise the distribution of shortest paths in percolation systems at the percolation threshold in two dimensions (2D). We study paths from one given point to multiple other points