Bioprospecção de extratos metanólicos de macroalgas marinhas do litoral do Rio Grande do Norte: avaliação das atividades anticoagulante, antioxidante e antiproliferativa
GOMES, Dayanne Lopes. Bioprospecção de extratos metanólicos de macroalgas marinhas do litoral do Rio Grande do Norte: avaliação das atividades anticoagulante, antioxidante e antiproliferativa. 2012. 200 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Biodiversidade; Biologia Estrutural e Funcional.) - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 2012.
Gomes, Dayanne Lopes
Seaweeds are organisms known to exhibit a variety of biomolecules with pharmacological properties. The coast of Rio Grande do Norte has over 100 species of seaweeds, most of them not yet explored for their pharmacological potential. Sugars and phenolic compounds are the most studied of these being assigned a range of biological properties, such as anticoagulant , antiinflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant activities. In this work, we obtained methanolic extracts from thirteen seaweeds of the coast of Rio Grande do Norte (Dictyota cervicornis; Dictiopterys delicatula; Dictyota menstruallis; D. mertensis; Sargassum filipendula; Spatoglossum schröederi; Acanthophora specifera; Botryocladia occidentalis; Caulerpa cupresoides; C. racemosa; C. prolifera; C. sertularioides e Codium isthmocladum). They were evaluated as anticoagulant and antioxidant drugs, as well as antiproliferative drugs against the tumor cell line HeLa. None of the methanolic extracts showed anticoagulant activity, but when they were evaluated as antioxidant drugs all of extracts showed antioxidant activity in all tests performed (total antioxidant capacity, sequestration of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, ferric chelation and reductase activity), especially the algae D. mentrualis, D. cilliolata and C. prolifera, who had the greatest potential to donate electrons.In addition, the ability of iron ions chelation appears as the main antioxidant mechanism of the methanolic extracts of these seaweeds mainly for the extract of the C. racemosa seaweed, which reached almost 100% activity. In the MTT assay, all extracts showed inhibitory activity at different levels againts HeLa cells. Moreover, D. cilliolata (MEDC) and D. menstrualis (MEDM) extracts showed specific activity to this cell line, not inhibiting the viability of 3T3 normal cell line, so they were chosen for detailing the antiproliferative mechanism of action. Using flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and in vitro assays we demonstrated that MEDC and MEDM induced apoptosis in HeLa cells by activation of caspases 3 and 9 and yet, MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in S phase. Together, these results showed that the methanolic extracts of brown seaweed D. menstrualis and D. cilliolata may contain agents with potential use in combatting cells from human uterine adenocarcinoma. This study also points to the need for more in-depth research on phytochemical and biological context to enable the purification of biologically active products of these extracts