Análise mecânica e microestrutural das ligas de cobalto-cromo de uso odontológico após sucessivas refundições
DANTAS, Hárrisson de Almeida. Análise mecânica e microestrutural das ligas de cobalto-cromo de uso odontológico após sucessivas refundições. 2008. 129 f. Tese (Doutorado em Processamento de Materiais a partir do Pó; Polímeros e Compósitos; Processamento de Materiais a part) - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 2008.
Dantas, Hárrisson de Almeida
The cobalt-chromium alloy is extensively used in the Odontology for the confection of metallic scaffolding in partial removable denture. During the last few years, it has been reported an increasing number of premature imperfections, with a few months of prosthesis use. The manufacture of these components is made in prosthetic laboratories and normally involves recasting, using parts of casting alloy and parts of virgin alloy. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyze the mechanical properties of a commercial cobalt-chromium alloy of odontological use after successive recasting, searching information to guide the dental prosthesis laboratories in the correct manipulation of the cobalt-chromium alloy in the process of casting and the possible limits of recasting in the mechanical properties of this material. Seven sample groups were confectioned, each one containing five test bodies, divided in the following way: G1: casting only with virgin alloy; G2: casting with 50% of the alloy of the G1 + 50% of virgin alloy; G3: casting with 50% of the alloy of the G2 + 50% of virgin alloy; G4: casting with 50% of the alloy of the G3 + 50% of virgin alloy; G5: 50% of alloy of the G4 + 50% of virgin alloy; G6: 50% of alloy of the G5 + 50% of virgin alloy and finally the G7, only with recasting alloy. The modifications in the mechanical behavior of the alloy were evaluated. Moreover, it was carried the micro structural characterization of the material by optic and electronic scanning microscopy, and X ray diffraction.and fluorescence looking into the correlatation of the mechanical alterations with structural modifications of the material caused by successive recasting process. Generally the results showed alterations in the fracture energy of the alloy after successive recasting, resulting mainly of the increasing presence of pores and large voids, characteristic of the casting material. Thus, the interpretation of the results showed that the material did not reveal significant differences with respect to the tensile strength or elastic limit, as a function of successive recasting. The elastic modulus increased from the third recasting cycle on, indicating that the material can be recast only twice. The fracture energy of the material decreased, as the number of recasting cycles increased. With respect to the microhardness, the statistical analyses showedno significant differences. Electronic scanning microscopy revealed the presence of imperfections and defects, resulting of the recasting process. X ray diffraction and fluorescence did not show alterations in the composition of the alloy or the formation of crystalline phases between the analyzed groups. The optical micrographs showed an increasing number of voids and porosity as the material was recast. Therefore, the general conclusion of this study is that the successive recasting of of Co-Cr alloys affects the mechanical properties of the material, consequently leading to the failure of the prosthetic work. Based on the results, the best recommendadition is that the use of the material should be limited to two recasting cycles