Artículos de revistas
Comparison of ketamine and S(+)-ketamine, with romifidine and diazepam, for total intravenous anesthesia in horses
VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, v.35, n.1, p.30-37, 2008
ROSSETTI, Renata B.
CORTOPASSI, Silvia R. Gaido
MACHADO, Thais S. de Lima
CRUZ, Rodrigo S. Ferreira da
Objective To compare the quality of induction and recovery, degree of muscle relaxation, clinically apparent potency and cardiopulmonary effects of racemic ketamine or S(+)-ketamine when used for total intravenous anesthesia in horses. Study design Prospective randomized clinical trial Animals Sixteen healthy stallions (323 +/- 99 kg), with a mean age of 6.2 years, undergoing castration. Methods Horses were pre-medicated with romifidine IV, 15 minutes before induction of anesthesia. Each animal was then randomly allocated to receive either diazepam and ketamine (DK) or diazepam and S(+)-ketamine (DKS) at similar doses to induce anesthesia. For maintenance of anesthesia, 1/4 of the initial bolus of ketamine alone or S(+)-ketamine alone was administered, as required. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and systolic blood pressure were measured before and at 10-minute intervals during recumbency. Time from induction to lateral recumbency, time from induction to first additional dose, time from last additional dose to return to sternal posture and time from last additional dose to standing were recorded, and a subjective evaluation of quality of induction, endotracheal intubation, muscle relaxation and quality of recovery was recorded. Results The quality of the induction and duration of anesthesia were similar in both groups. HR, RR and systolic blood pressure were not significantly different between groups. Although some animals which received DKS showed some minor excitatory effects (25% of them) during the induction of anesthesia, these animals received 32% fewer doses for the maintenance of anesthesia and the recovery scores were better. Conclusions and clinical relevance S(+)-ketamine showed some advantages over racemic ketamine, such as less anesthetic agent being required and better overall recovery from anesthesia. Further studies are needed to obtain the optimum induction dose for the S(+)-ketamine.