Artículos de revistas
Fretting fatigue in overhead conductors: Rig design and failure analysis of a Grosbeak aluminium cable steel reinforced conductor
ENGINEERING FAILURE ANALYSIS, v.16, n.1, p.136-151, 2009
AZEVEDO, C. R. F.
HENRIQUES, A. M. D.
PULINO FILHO, A. R.
FERREIRA, J. L. A.
ARAUJO, J. A.
The performance optimisation of overhead conductors depends on the systematic investigation of the fretting fatigue mechanisms in the conductor/clamping system. As a consequence, a fretting fatigue rig was designed and a limited range of fatigue tests was carried out at the middle high cycle fatigue regime in order to access an exploratory S-N curve for a Grosbeak conductor, which was mounted on a mono-articulated aluminium clamping system. Subsequent to these preliminary fatigue tests, the components of the conductor/clamping system, such as ACSR conductor, upper and lower clamps, bolt and nuts, were subjected to a failure analysis procedure in order to investigate the metallurgical free variables interfering on the fatigue test results, aiming at the optimisation of the testing reproducibility. The results indicated that the rupture of the planar fracture surfaces observed in the external At strands of the conductor tested under lower bending amplitude (0.9 mm) occurred by fatigue cracking (I mm deep), followed by shear overload. The V-type fracture surfaces observed in some At strands of the conductor tested under higher bending amplitude (1.3 mm) were also produced by fatigue cracking (approximately 400 mu m deep), followed by shear overload. Shear overload fracture (45 degrees fracture surface) was also observed on the remaining At wires of the conductor tested under higher bending amplitude (1.3 mm). Additionally, the upper and lower Al-cast clamps presented microstructure-sensitive cracking, which was folowed by particle detachment and formation of abrasive debris on the clamp/conductor tribo-interface, promoting even further the fretting mechanism. The detrimental formation of abrasive debris might be inhibited by the selection of a more suitable class of as-cast At alloy for the production of clamps. Finally, the bolt/nut system showed intense degradation of the carbon steel nut (fabricated in ferritic-pearlitic carbon steel, featuring machined threads with 190 HV), with intense plastic deformation and loss of material. Proper selection of both the bolt and nut materials and the finishing processing might prevent the loss in the clamping pressure during the fretting testing. It is important to control the specification of these components (clamps, bolt and nuts) prior to the start of large scale fretting fatigue testing of the overhead conductors in order to increase the reproducibility of this assessment. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.